Surname 0 Major Civilizations Name Course Submission Date Institution
Surname 1 Major Civilizations This paper aims at the evaluation of three different civilizations that occurred in different periods of history and were witnessed in various places around the world. By researching and analyzing these civilizations, this paper will demonstrate the specific reasons for the creation of societies, states, and empires by man during the pre-modern time. The areas that have informed this research are Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Southeast Asia (China). As much as these civilizations occurred in different locations, it will be shown that the basis of their creation was on several of similar factors. These factors include economic needs and religious orientations. In pre-modern times, these factors played a critical role in societies, states, and empires and were an essential force that served to unify the people. Even in the world of today, economic needs and religion continue to play a crucial role in the way people interact with each other and this is evident in the numerous economic alignments and religions practiced. Through this paper, I will also show that the factor that united the people, that is, economic needs, came into being through the practice of horticulture and animal husbandry. According to Maghan Keita, it was possible for domestication to be done in these regions. Moreover, the kind of success witnessed in terms of farming and grazing is an important factor that was likely to cause more migration of people and animals into spaces like these. The increase of populations gets accompanied by increase in the needs of these people. Consequently, there arose various socio-political and economic alignments characterizing the ancient urban areas of Mesopotamia and Indus valley. As a result, the nomadic tribes got envied by other smaller groupings, which then came together to form larger groups then hived off. William H Frederick notes the tendency of societies to prefer smaller groups and the subsequent
Surname 2 hiving off after they have achieved a particular population size. 1 One may then wonder what brings together the larger groups. The second factor stated above (religion) comes into play when we talk about the groups that have reached the desired population levels for their existence. Religion is the other important factor for consideration in this paper and its demonstration by showing that the growth of the populations, various religious views got integrated into the society, state, or empire. Furthermore, individual growth was not the only outcome of religious worship; religion played a critical role in territorial expansion as was the case in the use of the military for the same purpose. In this regard, the teachings of Buddha are an ideal example for demonstrating this fact.
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