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Midterm 1 - Cellular Structures and Functions Neurons Cell...

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Cellular Structures and Functions Neurons Cell Membrane: Selects certain substances in the body fluid to pass through ion channels, limiting others. Dendrites: Small branching fibers that extend from the soma of a neuron and receive messages from adjacent neurons (Input zone). Soma or Body Cell: Biochemical structures needed to keep the neuron alive. Nucleus – genetic information. Axon: An extension from one side of the neuron cell body that conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscles, or glands (Output pathway). Axon Terminal or Bouton or Button: Output zone. Axon Hillock: Start of signal. Glia: Support system for neurons. Glue to hold neurons in place. Nutrient chemicals, absorb waste. 10:1. Action Potential: A nerve impulse resulting from the depolarization of an axon’s cell membrane. Ion Channel: Sodium or Na+ Channel: Gated. Resting Potential: The voltage differential between the inside and outside of a neuron (about -70 mV) caused by the unequal distribution of ions inside the neuron’s membrane and outside in the fluid surrounding the neuron when the neuron is at rest. Excitatory - Depolarization: Na+ rushes into cell. Inhibiting - Hyperpolarization: K+ rushes out of cell. Myelin Sheath / Myelinated Axons: A fatty insulating substance on the axon of some neurons that increases the speed of neural transmission. Synapse: Connections between neurons. Each neuron synapses with 1-1000 neurons. 1000 connections in brain. Presynaptic Neuron: Postsynaptic Neuron: Synaptic Cleft: Synaptic Vesicles: Chambers within the axon that contain the neurotransmitter substance.
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