Midterm 1 - Cellular Structures and Functions Neurons Cell...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cellular Structures and Functions Neurons Cell Membrane: Selects certain substances in the body fluid to pass through ion channels, limiting others. Dendrites: Small branching fibers that extend from the soma of a neuron and receive messages from adjacent neurons (Input zone). Soma or Body Cell: Biochemical structures needed to keep the neuron alive. Nucleus – genetic information. Axon: An extension from one side of the neuron cell body that conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscles, or glands (Output pathway). Axon Terminal or Bouton or Button: Output zone. Axon Hillock: Start of signal. Glia: Support system for neurons. Glue to hold neurons in place. Nutrient chemicals, absorb waste. 10:1. Action Potential: A nerve impulse resulting from the depolarization of an axon’s cell membrane. Ion Channel: Sodium or Na+ Channel: Gated. Resting Potential: The voltage differential between the inside and outside of a neuron (about -70 mV) caused by the unequal distribution of ions inside the neuron’s membrane and outside in the fluid surrounding the neuron when the neuron is at rest. Excitatory - Depolarization: Na+ rushes into cell. Inhibiting - Hyperpolarization: K+ rushes out of cell. Myelin Sheath / Myelinated Axons: A fatty insulating substance on the axon of some neurons that increases the speed of neural transmission. Synapse: Connections between neurons. Each neuron synapses with 1-1000 neurons. 1000 connections in brain. Presynaptic Neuron: Postsynaptic Neuron: Synaptic Cleft: Synaptic Vesicles: Chambers within the axon that contain the neurotransmitter substance. Neurotransmitters: Chemical substances that are released from the axons of one neuron, travel across the
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '08 term at University of Iowa.

Page1 / 3

Midterm 1 - Cellular Structures and Functions Neurons Cell...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online