International Security Paper.docx - University Of Nairobi...

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University Of Nairobi Institute of Diplomacy and International Studies A Mid Term Paper presented by: Noblesse MUKENDI MUSA R67 / 46286 /2017 Subject: “Evaluate the effectiveness of the international security system in the 21 st Century’’ In partial fulfillment of the requirements for academic assessment of Fundamentals issues of international security RMA 204 Lecturer Dr. Martin O. Ouma, PhD Nairobi, Kenya August, 2018
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Introduction International security is a collective measure taken by states and international organizations to ensure mutual survival and safety for all people and states in the international system. Since 1994, this has drawn a particular focus to issues related to human security such as economic security, health security, food security, personal security, political security, environmental security, and community security as listed in the United Nations Development Program report of 1994. This was to broaden the focus of security from state centered to human centered or from territorial security to the security of the people and their survival. In today’s society everything and anything is seen as a security as a security matter making security a vital component of survival in the international system. The interdependence or interconnectedness brought by globalization makes broadens the concern of states from a self centered concern to a more collective issue. The security of one state today depends on that of another state. For instance, the constant insecurity in West Africa is due to the instability of certain states regardless of their power or influence in the region. This paper will try to give address issues regarding international security, systems of security used in the 21 st century and more importantly give recommendations to effective measures of maintaining international peace and security as suggested by the United Nations.
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Background In their attempt to give a brief history and the evolution of the field of international security studies, Buzan and Hansen ask four questions that help us distinguish each period and give us an idea of its evolution as a field in International Studies. The first question is whether to privilege the state as the referent object. Security is about constituting something that needs to be secured: the nation, the state, the individual, the ethnic group, the environment or the planet itself. Whether in the form of ‘national security’, or later, as traditionalist ‘international security’, the nation/state was the analytical and normative referent object. ‘International security’ was not about replacing the security of the state with the security of humanity, or the individual or minorities within or across state boundaries. Securing the state was seen instrumentally as the best way of protecting other referent objects. ‘National security’ should thus, as many observers have pointed out, more appropriately have been labelled ‘state
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  • Fall '18
  • Dr. Martin O. Ouma, PhD
  • International Relations, International Security, National security, Human security, International Security Studies

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