Governance Security and Politics 1a.docx

Governance Security and Politics 1a.docx - Globalisation...

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Globalisation, Governance, Security and Politics The origin of the state Consider a political map of the world: its most striking feature is the division of the entire earth’s surface into almost 200 neatly defined territorial units, namely sovereign states. To a student of politics in the Middle Ages a map of the world dominated by borders and boundaries would make little sense. Historically, borders are a relatively recent invention, as is the idea that states are sovereign, self-governing, territorially delimited political communities or polities. Although today a convenient fiction, this presumption remains central to orthodox state-centric conceptions of world politics as the pursuit of power and interests between sovereign states. Globalization, however, calls this state-centric conception of world politics into question. Taking globalization seriously therefore requires a conceptual shift in the way we think about world politics, governance and security. The Westphalian Constitution of world order Before the onset of intensified globalization several decades ago, world politics was chiefly organized on the basis of the so-called Westphalian system. The name is derived from the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which contains an early official statement of the core principles that came to dominate world affairs during the subsequent three hundred years. The Westphalian system was a states-system. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as states increasingly took the form of nation-states, people came to refer to 'international' as well as interstate relations and frequently described the Westphalian order as 'the international system'. The Peace Treaties of Westphalia and Osnabruck (1648) established the legal basis of modern statehood and by implication the fundamental rules or constitution of modern world politics. Although Pope Innocent referred to the Westphalian settlement at the time as ‘null, reprobate and devoid of meaning for all time’, in the course of the subsequent four centuries it has formed the normative structure or constitution of the modern world order. The Westphalian system was a framework of governance. That is, it provided a general way to formulate, implement, monitor and enforce social rules. At the core of this mode of governance stood the principles of statehood and sovereignty. Statehood meant that the world was divided into territorial parcels, each of which was ruled by a separate government. This modern state was a centralized, formally organized public authority apparatus that enjoyed a legal (and mostly effective) monopoly over the means of armed violence in the area of its jurisdiction. The Westphalian state was moreover sovereign, that is, it exercised comprehensive, supreme, unqualified, and exclusive control over its designated territorial domain.
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