History-of-US_Vol-X.pdf - IIISTORY 01< THE UNITED STATES FROM THE DISCOVERY m THE AMERICAN CO~TrnENT BY GEORGE BANCROFT VOL X BOSTON LITTLE BROWN AND

History-of-US_Vol-X.pdf - IIISTORY 01< THE UNITED STATES...

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Unformatted text preview: IIISTORY 01<' THE UNITED STATES, FROM THE DISCOVERY m' THE AMERICAN CO~TrnENT. BY GEORGE BANCROFT. VOL, X. • BOSTON: LITTLE, BROWN, AND CO:~IPANY. 1874. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18H, by GEORGE BA~CHOFT, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington . • Cambridge: · Press of Jolzn J,Vi/son and Son. THE Al\IERICAN REVOLUTION. BY GEORGE BANCROFT. VoL. IV. BOSTON: LITTLE, BROWN, .A,.~D cm.IPANY. 1874. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 187 -!, by GEORGE BA~CHOFT1 In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. Cambridge: Press of John Wilson and Son. PREF AOE. THE papers which i obtained from the French archives when l\Ir. l\Iignet h~d tliem in charge, have been of the greatest benefit in preparing this volume. Important aid has been derived from the exceedingly copious and as yet unedited cabinet correspondence of Frederic the Second of Prussia with his foreign ministers in England, France, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Russia. In choosing from this vast mass of materials, I received the most friendly assist­ ance from the superintendent, l\Ir. Dunker, and from l\Ir. Friedlander. Extracts from these letters, which are all written in the French language, will be published in Paris. I sought for some expression, on the part of Frederic, of a personal interest in Washington; but I found none. The Chevalier von Arneth, so honorably known as historian, editor, and critic of integrity and acuteness, had the ex­ ceeding goodness to direct for me an examination of the archives at Vienna; very many reports from the Austrian ambassadors in London and Paris were copied for me under his direction. They assist to define exactly the pressure under which Vergennes entered upon measures for mediation and for peace. l\fr. Frederic Kapp rendered me the best service in nego­ tiating on my behalf for the purchase of ample collections 6 PREFACE. of letters and journals of German officers who served in America. In Vienna are preserved the reports of an agent sent from Brussels to the United States in the interest of Belgian comme~ce. Of the best of these, Mr. De la Plaine, of the American legation in Austria, took copies of w}1ich he generously made me a present. Mr. Schuyler, lately of our legation at Petersburg, communicated to me all that he could find on earlier American affairs in the archives at l\Ioscow. l\Iy transcripts from the Dutch archives, for which I had formerly much occasion to feel obligecl to l\Ir. Groen van Prinsterer, have been largely increased through the intervention of my frien°d Count de Ilylandt. l\Iy request to make further 1:esearches in the English archives was cheerfully granted, and in the most liberal terms, by the Earl of Granville, and the permission was continued by the Earl of Derby. Indeed, there seemed to prevail in the foreign office a readiness to let every thing be investigated ancl made known respecting the past policy of Great Britain toward the United States. The Ameri­ can government has manifested the same disposition, and this I hold to be wise. The two great cosmopolitan nations are entering on a new era in their relations to one another; and their statesmen may mutually derive lessons alike from the errors which disturbed the past, and from what was done well. The rule in natural science that "life divides " is equally true of nations. The United States and Great Britain will each live its great and divergent life; but it is to be hoped that the same ideas of freedom, truth, and justice will be developed in them both, and bring them nearer each other. I have specially to thank Lord Tenterden for having favored me with copies of papers which establish the correctness of my narrative where it had been unjustly called in questb!l.. My best thanks are also due to l\Ir. ,v. PREFACE. 7 Alfre<l Kingston, of the PuLlic Ilecor<l Office, for the very obliging manner in which he gives effect to the permission granted me, an<l ai<ls my researches. To l\fr. Spofford, of washington, I owe two volumes of the manuscript correspondence of General Greene. l\fr. Seward, in the State Department, and hh, successor l\Ir. : Fish, with equal friendliness furnished me with docu­ ments which I needed from our own records. The late Joseph II. Lewiti in trusted to me the very voluminous pro­ fessional and private correspondence of General ·wayne. I was also aided materially by the late Governor Andrew and by Secretary arner of l\fa,;sachusetts, by the late Senator l\fason of Virginia, by J\Ir. George S. Ilryan, and by the never-failing friendship of l\Ir. Ilrantz :Meyer, l\Ir. J. Carson Ilrnvoort, and l\Ir. George II. Moore. On the character of Alexander Hamilton, I sought and obtained in­ struction from the late President Nott, as well as from the late l\Ir. Church, who was Hamilton's secretary in his last period of military service. . On two points I follow the verbal communications of :Madison; an<l it was not without fruit that I once passed a day with John Adams. With regard to the peace ?etween the United States and England, I think I might say that my materials in their completeness are unique. Of the letters of the American commissioners, nearly all are in print; yet I have been able to make gleanings from unpublished papers of them all, and have full reports of their conversations with the British representatives. On the French side, I have papers drawn up for the guidance of the negotiation; the reports of Ilayneval from England to Vergennes, re­ peated in the accounts addressed by Vergennes himself to Montmorin, the French ambassador at l\Iadrid, and to Luzerne, the French minister at Philadelphia. On the British side, I have the official letters of Shelburne and ,v 8 PREFACE. Secretary Townshend, anJ. of every member of the British commission ; beside a profusion of the private letters and papers of Shellmrne and of Oswald. I have also the private papers, as well as the official ones, of Strachey; and the courtesy of the present head of the family voluntaril.J gave consent to the unrestricted use of them. The Marquis of Lansdowne, of 18:!:8, was persuaded that no letters existed from George the Third to his father while first minister ; but assured me from his father that the king <lid nothing to obstruct the peace with the United States. Passing lately through London, Lord Edmond Fitz:\Iaurice was so good as to inform me that the nume­ rous original letters of the king to Lord She]burne had been discovered ; and he allowed me to make transcripts from them all, as well as from fragments of Lord Shelburne's autobiography. This generosity was all the greater, as Lord Fitz:\Iaurice will himself write a biography of his ancestor. The conduct of Shelburne, Townshend, and the younger Pitt, in 1782, in the negotiations for peace with America, are marked by liberality and candor ; but as to the admin­ istration of Lord North, English opinion will finally decide that it no more deserves to. be recognised as the expression of the British mind on the fit methods of colonial adminis­ tration than the policy of James the Second to be accepted as the proper exponent of English liberty. From these and other materials, it has been possible to place some questions of European as well as of American history in a clearer light. The embarrassments of Ver­ gennes, arising alike from his entanglements respecting Gibraltar, and the urgency of his king for peace, explain and justify the proceedings of the American commissioners in signing preliminaries of peace in advance. It will ap­ pear how much F1·ederic the Second aided America by PREFACE, D encouraoforr France to enter into the war for her imle­ "' "' pendcnce. The interest of this exposition is heightened rather than impaired by the fact that his motives sprung from his love to his own people. It also becomes certain that the Empress Catharine promulgated her naval code, not in ignorance of its character as has been hitherto stated, but with a full knowledge of what she was doing; and that she practised on the British minister at Peters­ burg no other cajolery than was needed to make him the channel through which the code was communicated to Great Britain, so that direct crimination might be avoided. The contemporary documents show that England declared war on the Dutch republic, solely to prevent her from being unconditionally received into the armed neutrality. I have been able from new materials to trace the division between the North and the South, arising from slavery, further bD,ck than had as yet been done. As to separatism, or the exaggerated expression of what we call States Rights, it did not grow out of the existence of slavery, but out of an element in human nature. The much agitated question as to the time and manner of the abolition of slavery in :Massachusetts finds itself solve<l without going from home: the witness was at the door. The conduct of Shelburne in making peace between the two countries is made clear from his own words and acts. The part taken by Franklin in initiating and forwarding the negotiation for peace is illustrated, not from his own letters alone, but from those of Oswald and others. In England it was never misappre­ hended. It is worth noticing that, though the negotiators on each side reciprocally marked the boundary agreed upon by a well-defined line on the map, yet, during the strife which was kept up about it for half a century, the American government did not catch a glimpse of this evi­ dence till a treaty of compromise was ratifie~l, and the map 10 PREFACE. of Oswald was not produced till the Dl'itish ministry that made the compromise had to defend it in parliament. It appears further that, late as was the participation of John. Adams in the negotiation, he c.i,me in time to secure to New England its true boundary on the north-east. .Adams and Franklin had always asked for the continuance of the accustomed share in the coast fisheries; and they were heartily supported by Jay, who had in congress steadily voted against making the demand. ,The requirement of the change in the form of Oswald's commission, so grateful to the self-respect of America, is due exclusively to Jay. It is good to look away from the strifes of the present hour, to the great days when our country had for its statesmen ashington and John Adams, Jefferson arid Hamilton, Franklin and Jay, and their compeers. The study of those times will al ways teach lessons of modera­ tion, and of unselfish patriotism. ,v CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. EUROPE AND A)IERICAN INDEPEKDENCE. 1778. The American question in Europe, 35- England at war with itself, 36­ Mutual dependence of American and English liberty, 36 -The administra­ tion no representative of Rritish character, 36-:Nor of parties, 36 -The British people, 37 - Chaotic state of political parties, 37 - Conflict of mon­ archy and the parliament, 37- Power passes to the aristocracy, 38-Abso­ lutism of parliament and liberty, 31)-Position of the whig party, 39­ Chatham and the liberal party, 39- Progress, 40- Why North remained in power, 40- State of France, 40- Its peasantry, 40- Its cultivated classes, 41- Its superior power of generalization, 41- Its war minister opposes the American alliance, 42-:Motives to the alliance, 42-1\Iaurepas and the rivalry with England. 42- Necker and the French finances, 43- Vergennes a monarchist, 43- His relation to America an<l to republicanism, 4! -The French cabinet and America, 4!- The light literature, 4! - Marie Antoi­ nette, 45-The king, 45- France threatene<l with bankruptcy, 413 - Society at Paris an,! Versailles, 4li- Peace the true policy of Spain, 4 7 - Its for­ eign depen<lencies, 47 - Its central government, 48-Jealousy of its monopo­ lies, 48 - Charles III. and the Jesuits, 49- Their expulsion, 49-The forerunner of in<lepenrlence, 4\J - Spanish distrust of the Lnited States, 50 - Portugal and the United States, 51- Austria, 51-Policy of Kaunitz, 62-Towards Prussia, 52 - Towards France, 53 - Towards England, 53­ Results, 51-Italy an<l the United States, M-Naples, 54-Turkey, 54­ Russia, 55-Sweden, 55- Denmark, 66- Bernstorf and the Unite<l States, 56-Switzerland, 57 -The Netherlands, 57 -The champions of neutral rights, 58-They help to restore English liberty, 59-Their alliance with England. 59-Their rights as neutrals violated in the French war, 60­ England intrigues to divide the republic, 60. 12 CONTENTS, CHAPTER II. OER)!ANY AND THE UNITED STATES, 1778. The Germans, 61- Their governments, 62-Their territory, 62-Their mi"rations 62-Their conversion to Christianity, 63 - Their struggle ag:inst th~ Saracens, 63- Charlemagne, 64 - His coronation ss em­ peror, 64- His claim of power in church and state, 65 - Dispute between emperor and pope, 65 - Victory of the pope, 66 -Abuse of the vic­ tory, 67-Free cities, 70-They gain a share in the government, 70 - Evils from papal power, 71-To what extent the theory carries the pretended infallibility, 72-Intolerance, 73- Greek diviners absolved from sin here and hereafter, 73-The papal power organizes the system, 73 -Absolute power self-destructive, 74-Luther, 74-The enfranchiser of mind, 74-Justification by faith alone, 74-Scope of Luther's teaching, 75-Leibnitz on Luther, 75-Rights of reason, 75-Applied to monar­ chical power, 76-To conscience and private judgment, 76 - Rights of the congregation, 77 - Luther's rules of colonization, 78- The synod of Hornberg, 78- Compromise in Germany between the reformation and civil authority, 79 -French Protestants make no such compromise, 79 -The emperor false to the reformation, 80- It finds an asylum in the free cities, 80- Saxony loses the headship of Protestant Germany, 80- The IIohen­ zollerns, by becoming Calvinists, prepare themselves for the headship of northern Germany, Bf-Parallel between events in Germany and in Amer­ ica, 81- Gustavus Adolphus, 82- Oxenstiern, 82- Upper German circles, 82-State of Germany before the thirty years' war, 82-After the war, 83 - German emigration, 83-The hea<l of the Hohenzollerns acknowledges the rights of the people and of conscience, 84-The Huguenot exiles in Berlin and in America, 84 -Influence of the English revolution in America and in Prussia, 84- Saying of Leibnitz, 85-The pope foresees his clanger, 85- Aspect of the peace of Utrecht on America and on Prussia, 85-Prot­ estant exiles of Salzburg in America and in Prussia, 85- Joint action of Pitt, Frederic, and ·washington, 86-Effect of Bute's policy on Fred­ eric and on the United States, 86- Kant and the United States, 87 - His method, 88-Kant on political freedom, on the unity of the universe, 88­ 0n slavery, the sale of troops, and rights of man, 88- His paramount friendship for America, 88- Lessing on the education of his race, 88- On republics, 89 - On sale of troops, 89- On the work of America, 89 - Her­ der on republics, 89-Klopstock on the American war, 90-Goethe a repub­ lican by birth, 90-For Frederic, 90-For Corsica, 90- For American independence, 91- Predicts self-government for European nations, 91­ Schiller, 92 -Niebuhr, 92-The youth of Germany, 92. 13 CONTENTS. CHAPTER III. TIIE RELATIONS OF THE TWO NEW POWERS, 1778. Duke of Saxe-Gotha, ll4 - Refuses troops to England, 94 - His patriot­ ism, 9-1-Charles Augustus of Saxe-\Veimar, 95-Goethe and the class called the lower, 96-Frederic Augustus of Saxony, 96-Fate of the Ger­ man houses that sold troops, 96- Of Saxe-\Veimar, 97 -Of Saxe-Gotha­ Altenlmrg, 97 - Cause of the contrast, 97 - Frederic of Prussia, 97 - The six qualities of a great man, 97 - His relation to the nobility, 97 - To Ger­ man letters, 98-To other powers, 98-To German liberty, 98- To republican government, 99- To England and France, 99 - His good-will to America, 100-Thinks English government tending to despotism, 100­ Condemns the king's proclamation, 100-Justifies the Americans, 101­ \Vonders at the indifference of the English, 101- Condemns the British court, 102- Predicts American independence, 102- Observes the eclipse of English liberty, 102-Devotes himself, to Prussia, 103-Declines a direct commerce with the United States, 103-Receives their declaration of independence as a proof that they cannot be subjugated, 10-1- Hume's prophecy, 104-0pinion on the tory party, 104- Consents to an American commerce through French ports, 104- Predicts the bankruptcy of France, 104 -Anxious as to the Bavarian succession, 105 - Makes approaches to France, 105 - Declines the overture of Franklin, 106- Protects Arthur Lee, 107 - In what England and France excelled, 107 - Frederic again de­ clines the English alliance, 108 - Confesses his maritime weakness, 109 ­ Seeks the aid of France and Russia in the Bavarian succession, 109- Gains the good-will of Maurepas, 110 - Encourages Maurepas to a war with Eng­ land, 110 - Seeks to escape a new war with Austria, 111 - Interposition of Marie Antoinette for America, 111- Maurepas consults Frederic, 112 ­ His opinion of England's position after the defeat of Burgoyne, 113- His judgment on its ministry, 113 - Ascribes its defeat to its departure from English principles, 114- Opens Dantzic to the Americans, 114-Forbids the transit of troops, 114 - Proposes to recognise American indepen­ dence, 115 CHAPTER IV. THE BRITISH RETREAT FROM PENfSYLVANIA, l\Iay-June, 1778. France and England change places, 116- The French a landed people, 116- The English a._landless people, 116- Congress ratifies the French treaties, 117-Their reception in ,vashington's camp, 117 -Address of congress to the people, 118- Festival to General Howe, 118- He marches to capture Lafayette, 119-Grant outgeneralled, 120-Lafayette escapes, 120- Howe sails for England, 120- His mistakes as a general, 120-At Bunker Hill, 120-In retreating to Halifax, 120- On Long Island, 121·­ 14 CONTENTS. Divides his army, 121-His waste of time, 121- His winter in Philadel­ phia, 121- Congress rejects the British conciliatory acts, 122- Will treat only as an independent nation, 1:l2 -Arrival of British commissioners, 122 -Their characters, 123-Germain's plan for the coming campaign, 123­ Preparations for evacuating Philadelphia, 124 -The commissioners exceed their authority in their offers to congress, 125-They sail for New York, li5 -The American officers and the commissioners, 125- Congress refuses to permit the army of Burgoyne to embark, 126- Crossing the Delaware, 127 - Intrigue of Lee, 127 - Washington pursues the British army, li8-Ad­ vice of Lee, 128-He commands the advanced corps, 128- !Iis negligence, 129-His confused orders, 129-Movements of Clinton, 130-Lee's retreat, 130- Washington .orders him to the rear, 131-The battle of Monmouth, 132- Conduct of Greene, 132-0f Wayne, 132-Death of Monckton, 132 -The British defeated, 132-They retire by night, 133- Opinion of Fred­ eric, 133- Congress thank "\Vashington, 133- Black Americans in the battle, 133-Insolence of Lee, 133-Suspended J:,y court-martial, 13-1­ Dismissecl by Congress, 134 - Character, 134 - Death, 134 - Carver's travels, 134-His predictions, 135. CHAPTER V. HOW }'AR AlrnRICA HAD ACHIEVED INDEPENDENCE AT THE TIME OF THE J,'R'E.SCII ALLIANCE. July-September, 1778. Wyoming valley, 136-Takes part in the war, 136 - Revenge of the Senecas, 137- Sucingcrachton, 137 -Butler, 137 - Defeat of the men of Wyoming, 138-The Senecas and Germain, 138- Result for Penn­ sylvania, 138-Trials for treason, 139 - State of the British before the French alliance, 139- Contrast of the American and British soldier, 139 - Change in the American mind, 140-In the English mind, 140- Opin­ ion of Gibbon, 140-Howe, 141-C!inton, 141-Germain, 141-Nurth, 141-Lord Amherst, 141-Parliament, 141-The king, 142-Lord Rock­ ingham, 142-Fox, 142-Change in Parliament, 142-Fox, Pownall, and Conway for independence, 142- Opinion of Barrington, 143 -Mans­ field, 143-The landed aristocracy, 143- Change of ministry desired, 143 - Congress in Philadelphia, 144 - Confederacy signed by all the states except Maryla...
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