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The Demographic Transition Model and its 5 stages This website will be very helpful in assisting you in identifying the appropriate stage for your selected country. Stage 1:High fluctuation - high birth rate and high death rates - however population growth is small. Very few countries (if any) fall in this category. Reasons for high birth rate include:Limited birth controlhigh infant mortality rate encourages the birth of more childrenchildren are seen as a future source of incomeReasons for high death rate:high incidence of diseasepoor nutrition and faminepoor levels of hygieneStage 2: High birth rate but falling death rate. The total population begins to expand rapidly. These countries represent pre-industrial societies, still relying upon agricultural or pre-agricultural economic structures with a relatively small urban population.