Chapter 14 History.docx - The War with Mexico and its...

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The War with Mexico and its Consequences-(1840s) Territorial expansion under Pres. James K Polk -Annexation of Texas before his inauguration didn’t stop war w/ Mexico but started it-Mexico broke relations w/ US-(During Annexation process) Polk urged Texans to seize lands to Rio Grande & claim river as S. & W. border-Mexico → Nueces River border (conflict arises)-Polk wanted Mexico’s territory all the way to Pacific & all of Oregon Country (achieved their goals)Oregon-(1844 campaign) Polk’s supporters threatened war w/ GB to gain all of Oregon-(pres.) Didn’t want to fight Mexico & GB at same time-Avoided bloodshed in NW (since 1819, Ameri. + Britain occupied territory)-Dropped demand for boundary at latitude 54º 40’-Pressured British to accept 49th parallel-(1846) GB agreed-Oregon Treaty gave US Oregon, Washington, Idaho & parts of Wyoming & Montana [present day]-New era of land acquisition/conquest begun under 11th pres. of US-6th to be slaveholder & secretly bought/sold slaves from White HouseMr. Polk’s War-Polk more aggressive toward Mexico-(1846) ordered American troops under “Old Rough and Ready”General Zachary Taylor to march S. & defend border of Rio Grande (across from town of Matamoros, Mexico)-Desired Cali. as prize in expansionist strategy-Attempted to buy from Mexico huge piece of land extending to Pacific → failed, Pres. want war-Negotiations between troops in French ⇒ no Ameri. spoke spanish & noMexican spoke english-(April 24, 1846) Mexican cavalry attacked U.S cavalry unit on N. side of the river ⇒ 11 killed, 63 captive-Polk sent message to Congress: Mexico had “shed American blood on American soil”-Bill accompanying message: “war exists by act of Mexico itself” summoned nation to fight-(2 days later) House votes for war ⇒ 174 to 14; Senate ⇒ 40 to 2 w/ #’s abstentions-Antislavery Whigs tried to oppose war in Congress -Polk w/held key facts → reality not known-Theory & practice of manifest destiny ⇒ US enters 1st major war on foreign territoryForeign War and the Popular Imagination-War = public celebrations-Crowds gather in S. cities (Richmond & Louisville) & N. cities (Phili & NY) to show support for war effort-Gnl. Taylor 1st. 2 battlefield victories at Palo Alto & Resaca de la Palma →
volunteers swarmed recruiting stations-Publishers print books about Mexican geography-“Palo Alto” hats & root beer on sale-New daily newspapers (printed on rotary presses) boosted sales giving war romantic appeal-Fulfilment of Saxon -Christian destiny to expand & possess the NA continent & take civilization to “semi-Indian” Mexicans-Racism fueled expansionist spirit-(1846) Illinois newspapers justified war: Mexicans were “reptiles in the path of progressive democracy”-War w/ Mexico → 1st national event experienced w/ immediacy-Battles S. of border reported by war correspondents-Vera Cruz (Gulf Coast of Mexico) ships carried news dispatches to New Orleans-Riders carried news to N.

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