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Experiment #8: Making Soap: Base- Catalyzed Hydrolysis of a Triglyceride Kassie LongCHE102L Section 3Partner: Rachel Blockin and Samantha VargoMarch 28, 2018
Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to create soap from vegetable oil. It was observed while mixed with mineral oil and water and then compared to just mineral oil and water mixed together. The soap created was also added to test tubes filled with CaCl, MgCl, or FeCl and the solubility was compared. The test tubes with CaCl and MgCl did not dissolve. The test tube with FeCl did dissolve. Our soap created from safflower oil was also compared to soap created from another oil. One was light yellow and one was white, meaning the color reflects upon which oil was used during the experiment. Background:A fatty carboxylic acid contains a carboxylic acid group with a long carbon chain that canchange in length and may also contain double bonds. A saturated fatty acid is when the fatty acid contains only single bonds. An unsaturated fatty acid is when the fatty acid contains one or more double bonds. A triglyceride is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. There are many triglycerides, all depending on the oil source some are highly unsaturated. Mixed triglycerides are also very common where the three fatty acids are different. Saponification is the process where a triglyceride in common vegetable oil break the three ester bonds. When an ester is exposed to heat under basic conditions, it decomposes and theresulting product is soap. This reaction happens regardless of whether it is a simple ester or a trimester in a triglyceride.