1Community Policing Programs – Probation and Parole SystemsJanice RolandCJ 544: Community CorrectionsDr. Daniel IraborApril 15, 2016Grambling State University
Drugs and the African-American Community 2Community correction programs are sanctions that are imposed on former offenders thatoccur in a residential orcommunitysetting outside of a jail or prison. The sanctions are enforcedby agencies or courts with legal authority over the offenders. There are many types ofcommunity correction programs such as being placed under house arrest or doing communityservice. Two of the most popular, well known and most often confused programs are theprobation and parole systems. The reason both of these topics were chosen is because of theconfusion they cause. Many people do not know the difference between the two. This paper willdistinguish the difference between the two programs as well as give some insight into bothprograms. The paper will also discuss some issues among the probation and parole programsalong with possible solutions for improvements.Probation is a type of community correction program where there is correctionalsupervision within the community rather than in a jail or prison. There is no jail or prison timeassociated with probation because the offender has not been sentenced to time prior to beingplaced on probation. It can have a number of different supervision statuses including activesupervision, where it is required to regularly report to a probation authority in person, by mail, orby telephone. Some probationers may be on an inactive status which means they are excludedfrom regularly reporting. Other supervision statuses include probationers who only havefinancial conditions remaining, have absconded, or who have active warrants. Offenders arerequired to fulfill certain conditions of their supervision and adhere to specific rules of conductwhile in the community (Bureau of Justice Statistics).Probation dates back hundreds of years ago by first using missionaries. The missionariesacted as what are now called probation officers and the offender had to report to them in thesame way they do now. The missionaries helped the offenders to become better people in the
Drugs and the African-American Community 3community as well as being responsible for their actions. The Probation of First Time OffendersAct allowed for courts around the country to follow the London example of appointingmissionaries. The job of the missionaries was to work with magistrates to develop a system ofreleasing offenders on the condition that they kept in touch with the missionary and acceptedguidance. John Augustus is recognized as the first true probation officer. Augustus wassubsequently credited with founding the investigations process that is one of the three mainconcepts of modern probation The other two processes are intake and supervision. Augustus,who kept detailed notes on his activities, was also the first to apply the term "probation" to hismethod of treating offenders.