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Unformatted text preview: 1-27-2008Argentina: Prosperity, Deadlock, and ChangeIntroduction•The area’s greatest resource was its fertile land—some of the richest in the world.The Struggle Over Nationhood•The decades after independence saw a battle over the direction of the new country’s economic development. The competing groups came from different regionsoUnitarians—mainly from the province of Buenos Aires—wanted to nationalize the port city of Buenos Aires: strip it of its autonomy, then make it into a base from which to reduce provincial barriers to trade and thereby open the entire country to international commerce.oFederalists—from the interior—agreed on the need to nationalize Buenos Aires because they wanted the city’s customs receipts distributed to all the provinces; wanted to maintain provincial autonomy, especially the ability to levy interprovincial tariffs and thus protect local industries.oFederalists of a different kind—from the province of Buenos Aires—opposed nationalization of the port city of Buenos Aires, since that would mean the loss of their province’s existing monopoly over the city’s customs revenues; wanted free trade; advocated the status quo.•Juan Manuel de Rosas resolved the conflict and wanted to rule all of Argentina; he pursued his goal with policies favoring the estancieros (ranch owners) thus furthering the consolidation of a landed aristocracyoArdent Buenos Aires FederalistoSubduing rival caudillosoBuilt up the nation on the principle of federalismoMany foreigners saw him as a xenophobeSought to apply in his foreign policy the tactics that had worked so handsomely in domestic policySucceeded in arousing a powerful opposition alliance that included Brazil and Uruguay, as well as General Justo Jose de Urquiza, who commanded the force that defeated Rosas in 1852.oDuring the Rosas era many Argentine intellectuals fled the repressive regime•Power was taken by Justo Jose de Urquiza, a federalist from the interior; he began calling for a constitutional convention, which promulgated a constitution in 1853, closely following the U.S. exampleoProvince of Buenos Aires refused to join the new confederation; defeated in a brief civil war in 1859, the province was forced to capitulateoOnly 2 years later the province rose in revolt, led by Bartolome Mitre, and captured control of the confederation•Mitre was inaugurated as president in 1862 and he launched a new drive to unify Argentina...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course POLI 238 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08
- American Politics