a&p4 final review .docx - CH 27 When water loss is greater...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 6 pages.

CH 27When water loss is greater than water gain, dehydration occurs.Elimination of excess body water occurs through urine productionThe two main solutes in urine are sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-)Three major hormones control renal Na+ and Cl- Angiotensin IIAldosteroneAtrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)Major hormone that regulates water loss is antidiuretic hormone (ADH)Sodium is the most abundant ion in extracellular fluid - is controlled by aldosterone, adh, and anp Chloride is the major extracellular ion Potassium is the most abundant cation is extracellular fluid Bicarbonate is the most important plasma ionCalcium is the most abundant ion in the bodyPhosphate occurs as calcium phosphate saltThe pH of arterial blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45. several mechanisms maintain this range such as bugger systems, exhalation of carbon dioxide, kidney excretion of H+The proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys secrete H+ into the tubular fluid Acidosis- blood pH is below 7.35Alkalosis - blood pH is above 7.45Acidosis - impaired ability of lungs and kidney to compensate for acid-base imbalances Natriuresis is elevated levels of Na+CH 28Male reproductive system includes testes, ductus deferens, epididymis, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, scrotum, and penis Testes are paired, oval glands in the scrotum, partially covered y the tunica vaginalis.Seminiferous tubules carry sperm produced within them (spermatogenesis) out of the testes.The primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis 1 to become two secondary spermatocytes (haploid)Meiosis 2 takes place and the secondary spermatocytes become four spermatids. Sperm is designed to reach and penetrate the secondary oocyte in order to achieve fertilization and create a zygote The head contains a nucleus with 24 chromosomes LH stimulates cells in the testes to produce testosterone

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture