2-5-08 Nutrition

2-5-08 Nutrition - NutritionBasic Principles of...

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Unformatted text preview: 2-5-2008NutritionBasic Principles of Nutrition•Diet refers to food selection•Nutrients serve three major rolesoGrowth, repair and maintenance of all body cellsoRegulation of body processesoSupply of energy for cells•Some nutrients can be made by the body•Essential nutrientsoMust be supplied by an individual’s diet•3 essential nutrientsoCarbohydratesoFats oProtein•Regulator (Micronutrients) nutrients:oMineralsoVitaminsoWater•With a consistently low quality diet an individual runs the risk of developing a nutritional deficiency•OvernutritionoEating too much food or specific nutrientsoCommon problem in the United StatesoCan lead to obesityoSome nutrients are toxic in large doses as wellTypically linked to vitamin/mineral usage•Energy for the bodyoEnergy value of food is measured in caloriesoCarbohydrates = 4 calories per gramoFat = 9 calories per gramoProtein = 4 calories per gramoAlcohol = 7 calories per gramCarbohydrates (CHO)•Provide body with energyoWhile body will also run on fat and protein, CHO are preferred source of energy•55% of total caloric intake should be accounted for by carbohydrates•Classified into simple (sugars) or complex (starch, glycogen, fiber)Sugars•Glucose (blood sugar) is needed to fuel cellsoSources—fruit, syrups, honey•Fructose (fruit sugar) occurs naturally in honey•Lactose (milk sugar)•Sucrose (table sugar)•Must be careful not to consume too much sugar in a diet (empty calories)•Replaces other nutritious foods from dietStarches (complex)•Found in cereal grains, potatoes, beans•Broken down during digestion into glucose units and stored as glycogen in body•Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles•Glycogen is broken down and released as glucose into the body when necessaryFiber (complex)•Not digested in the small intestineoMoves through digestive tract relatively unchanged•SourcesoFruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, nuts, beans, and peas...
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2-5-08 Nutrition - NutritionBasic Principles of...

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