Geography 202 Tests 1,2,3

Geography 202 Tests 1,2,3 - Chapter 2: Major Themes in...

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Chapter 2: Major Themes in World Geography I. Globalization – “The increasing economic, political, environmental, and cultural interconnectedness of the world” A. Economic Globalization 1) The move towards a single “World Economy” a) Business and capital moves to whatever location affords the greatest advantage i. Mexico was the low cost manufacturer of the 1990s ii. Today many of these jobs are moving to China iii. India’s technology sector b) Contracts are becoming increasingly global – competitive i. internet and advanced software applications allow for dissemination of work - Radiology, engineering 2) Large transnational (global) corporations unbeholden to any country a) Wal-Mart, British Petroleum, Exxon-Mobile B. Political Globalization 1) Economic shifts have created new political alliances (Russia and U.S.) 2) The alliances may be formalized as a Supernational Organization a) Supernational organization – An alliance between several states in which each state cedes a certain amount of power to achieve a common goal 3) Ex of a Supernational organization a) Governance and security i. UN, NATO b) To create larger markets i. NAFTA, EU c) To control markets i. OPEC – Organization of petroleum exporting countries C. Environmental Globalization 1) Increase in economic activity results in increase in pressure on natural resources a) Oil – industrial and economic growth due to globalization increases b) Land - increasing population increases demand – clearing, slash and burn i. Leads to increasing and clearing of land that may not be viable for long-term agricultural use ii. Biomass burning leads to regional air pollution problems c) Forests – higher demand for land and pulp for manufacturing i. sustainability – will high rates of harvest quickly consume resources ii. clear cutting – very effective economically but highly inefficient ecologically
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d) Minerals – globalization increases demand for metals and other minerals used in manufacturing 2) Pollution doesn’t recognize political boundaries a) Transport via i. Air currents (atmosphere) – dust and smoke ii. Rivers – chemicals, sediment iii. Groundwater – chemicals iv. Oceans – chemicals, flotsam 3) Dirtier industries tend to concentrate in poorer regions a) These regions are more concerned with economic development than environmental protection b) Political Export – process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste materials to other countries where regulations are less stringent and cheaper D. Cultural Globalization 1) Culture- “A way of life” 2) Cultural globalization – engineering common global culture due to growing interconnectedness a) Decrease size of relative world b) Rise of global media and internet 3) Heavy American influence on global culture due to U.S. position as sole superpower a) Cultural hegemony (cultural imperialism) “The dominance of one culture by another often associated with the political or military dominance of one society by another.” b) Cultural nationalism “A process of protecting one’s culture from
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Geography 202 Tests 1,2,3 - Chapter 2: Major Themes in...

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