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Geology Lab 101 Midterm

Geology Lab 101 Midterm - Lab 1 notes Page 8 and 9 Kinds of...

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Lab 1 - notes Page 8 and 9 Kinds of plate boundaries (labeling): Divergent boundary – mid ocean ridge, two plates splitting apart Transform fault boundary – sliding past each other, around mid ocean ridge Convergent boundary / trench – subduction area Lithosphere – above the asthenosphere Pillow basalt – top of first layer of the lithosphere Basalt dikes – bottom of the first layer of the lithosphere Gabbro and peridotite – largest and last layer of the lithosphere Asthenosphere – below the lithosphere Peridotite – some of the rock that makes up the asthenosphere Abyssal plain – oceanic lithosphere out to ocean Volcano – mountains caused by the subduction, water, and partial melting Major plates : Pacific, Indo-Australian, Eurasian, South American, North American, African, Antarctic Plate
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Lab 2 – notes Bold and italicized words : Mineral – inorganic, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical composition, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structure Rock – aggregates of one or more minerals Rock forming minerals – the main minerals observed in rocks Industrial minerals – the main minerals used to manufacture physical materials of industrialized societies Physical properties : Color – usually most noticeable property; different minerals have different colors Clarity – variation of how clear the color is in the sample Transparent – clear and see through, like window glass Translucent – foggy, like looking through a steamed-up shower Opaque – impervious to light, like concrete and metals Crystal Form – geometric shapes like cubes, pyramids, or prisms Habit – the characteristic crystal form of a mineral Luster – a description of how light reflects from the surface of an object, such as a mineral Metallic Luster – reflect light like metal in your home – they have opaque, reflective surfaces with a silvery, gold, brassy, or coppery sheen Nonmetallic Luster – a luster unlike that of the metal objects in your home Hardness – a measure of resistance to scratching. A harder substance will scratch a softer one. Streak – the color of a substance after it has been ground or scratched to make a fine powder. Cleavage – the tendency of some minerals to break along flat, parallel surfaces Fracture – any break in a mineral that does not occur along a cleavage plane Tenacity – the manner in which a substance resists breakage Brittle – shatters like glass Malleable – like modeling clay of gold; can be hammered or bent Striations – straight “hairline” grooves on the cleavage surfaces of some minerals Magnetism – influences some minerals, such as magnetite. Magnetite is attracted to a magnet. Specific Gravity – The ratio of the density of a substance divided by the density of water Mohs Scale of Hardness : 10 – Diamond 9 – Corundum 8 – 7 – Quartz 6 – 6.5 – Streak plate 5 – Apatite 5.5 – Glass, Masonry nail, Knife blade 4 – Flourite 4.5 – Wire (Iron) nail 3 – Calcite 3.5 – Copper wire or coin (penny)
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