95%(20)19 out of 20 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.
Week 8 Discussion-NURS-6501Digestive DisordersIntroductionInflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two diseases, Crohn disease (CD) andulcerative colitis (UC). IBD is a relapse and remitting disease characterized by chronicinflammation resulting in irregular bowel habits and abdominal pain (Huether & McCance,21017). CD can affect any portion of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus, can occur in alllayers of the intestine, and usually involves “skip lesions” [Row17]. UC is limited to the colonicmucosa, most commonly in the rectum and sigmoid colon [Hue17]. Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseThe inflammation results from a cell-mediated response in the GI tract mucosa. Cytokines are released by macrophages (bind to multiple receptors producing autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects) and differentiate lymphocytes into multiple T-helper cells. Type 1 T-helper cells are frequently associated with CD and type 2 T-helper cells are commonly found in UC. The disruptive immune response affects the mucosal lining of the GI tract, causinga chronic inflammatory response. The inflammation causes ulceration, bleeding, edema, fluid, and electrolyte loss [Row17]. Irritable Bowel SyndromeIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, discomfort or bloating. Changes in stool habits are common, particularly in frequency and consistency. Thecause and the pathology is not completely understood [Mol17]. The Rome IV criteria are used todiagnose this disorder, requiring patients to have abdominal pain one day a week for three