PSYCH STUDY GUIDE.docx - PSYCH STUDY GUIDE Asch Study- The...

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PSYCH STUDY GUIDEAsch Study-The line judgment task was very easy: judging whether two lines werethe same length In a group of seven confederates, there was one true participant Afull 75 percent of participants conformed at least once Overall, participantsconformed 33 percent of the timeAttentional bias-Attentional biases and resistance -Selective Attention Preexisting attitudes may resist change by guiding howinformation is attended to, interpreted, and remembered-Selective Evaluation  May evaluate information in biased ways to support ourpreexisting opinion We look favorably on material that agrees with our point of viewand critically on information that contradicts itAttitude inoculation-Small attacks on people’s beliefs that engage their preexistingattitudes, prior commitments, and background knowledge, enabling them tocounteract a subsequent larger attack and thus resist persuasionAutomatic Mimicry-The phenomenon whereby merely thinking about a behaviormakes performing it more likely When we see others behave in a certain way, we aremore likely to act the same way--Serves as preparation for social interaction - Mimicry is stronger for people with a drive to affiliate with others - People likeindividuals who mimic them better than those who don’t-People who are mimickedengage in more prosocial behavior afterward  -Mimicry may build social rapport andlead to pleasant social interactionsCultural differences in mimicry -People of various cultures differ in their tendencies to mimic others, and in howmuch mimicry they expect in social interactions -Being attuned to the emotions and behavior of others is more characteristic ofHispanic cultures than of Anglo-American culturesCentral route-A route to persuasion wherein people think carefully and deliberatelyabout the content of a persuasive message, attending to its logic and the strength of itsarguments, as well as to related evidence and principlesCognitive Dissonance-can be reduced by changing thoughts, feelings, or behaviorin order to make them consistent  For instance, smoking may cause dissonancebecause it is bad for health and most people want to be healthy  Dissonance can bereduced by changing: Behavior: quitting smoking  Belief: “Not enough evidence to show smoking is bad,”“YOLO”-Inconsistencies among a person’s thoughts, sentiments, and behaviors cause anaversive emotional state (dissonance) that leads to efforts to restore consistency
-can be reduced by adding thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to reduce apparentinconsistencies For instance, many people may find it too difficult to quit smokingDissonance can be reduced by adding such thoughts as “My grandfather smokedevery day and he lived to be 100 years old,” or, “Yes, I know it’s bad for me, but ithelps me relax”-Decision dissonancetypically is resolved by emphasizing the positives andminimizing the negatives of the selected choice

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Term
Spring
Professor
AmySchaffer
Tags
Sociology, Oxytocin, positive moods

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