geog_ch4 - Colonialism immigration and trade contribute to...

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Colonialism, immigration, and trade contribute to globalization ¾ of pop. Live in cities, 17 states; 2/3 speak Spanish, rest Porteguese Growing industrial capacity, largest rainforest, megacities: Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janerio Environmental Geography o Largest rainforest, complex ecosystem o Submerged plates created the Andes, vulnerable to earthquakes 2001 El Salvador o Shields: upland plateaus, Brazilian shield largest o Issues Worst environmental problems found in cities, surrounding rivers and coasts, and farmed zones. Forest destruction, desertification, water pollution, and poor urban air quality Imbalance between economic extraction with ecological conservation Valley of Mexico Mexico City: 18 million ppl, notorious for smog, water scarcity and quality, sinking due to subsidence (30ft in 20 th century) 16% of Brazilian Amazon deforested Due to expansion of industrial mining and logging, road networks, human-ignited wildfires, pop growth, grassifcation: forest pasture Degradation of farmlands due to modernizing techniques and sever soil erosion Industrialization major cause of pollution, inadequate water, garbage removal. o Western Mtns and Eastern Sheilds The Andes: NW Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego, active volcanism and earthquakes, altiplano is the elevated plateau Elevated lands Volcanic Axis of Central America: Chain of volcanoes along pacific coast of Central America stretching from Guatemala to Costa Rica Mexican Plateau around Mexico City and Juarez, Mesa Central, flat-bottom basin, contains megalopolis —Mexico City, Guadalajara, Puebla 3 major shields Brazilian; larger and important for natural resources and settlement; Amazon Basin to Plata Basin. Patagonia; open steppe country; southern tip of South America; sparsely settled Guiana: discussed in Ch 5 o River Basins and Lowlands Amazon Basin: largest river system in the world by volume. Rainfall>60”. Draws from 9 countries, sparse settlement due to poor quality of forest soil. Forever changing due to settlements, roads, hydroelectric power, farms and mines Plata Basin: begins in the Tropics and discharges into the Atlantic. Made up of Parana, the Paraguay, and Uruguay rivers; contains several dams including region’s largest hydroelectric plant Orinoco Basin: northern south America; 1/6 the size of and above the Amazon basin; discharge equals that of MS river; o Climate Precipitation patterns create distinct wet and dry seasons. Altitudinal Zonation: cooler temperatures at higher elevation and changes in vegetation Environmental lapse rate: -3.5 degrees for every 1,000 feet Most relevant for the Andes, highlands of Central America, Mexican Platea El Nino: warm Pacific current arriving along coasts of Ecuador and Peru in Dec; 1997-98 natural disaster for Peru and Ecuador Drought-regularly threaten certain areas of Latin America: NE brazil Fortleza to Salvador
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geog_ch4 - Colonialism immigration and trade contribute to...

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