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Final Review - Sociology Final Review Chapter 9 Defining...

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Sociology Final Review Chapter 9 Defining Deviance Behavior that violates social norms Departs significantly from social expectations Sociological Definition of Deviance Stresses social context, not individual behavior Not all behaviors are judged similarly by all groups Est. rules and norms are socially created Foundations of Deviance Deviance involves social power o Norms and application are linked to social position People become deviant o How other perceive and label us Deviance varies according to cultural norms o No thought or action is inherently deviant Social Control The attempts a society makes at regulating thought and behavior Personality factors o Deviance is socially unsuccessful Biological context o Biological factors may have effect on person being criminal Criminal Justice System o Formal response to violation of laws Social Theories of Deviance Functionalism Deviance creates social cohesion. Symbolic Interaction Deviance is learned behavior. Conflict Theory Dominant classes control the definition of deviance. Functionalism Deviance results from structural strains in society. Symbolic Interaction Deviance results from social labeling. Conflict Theory Deviance results from inequality in society. Functionalism Occurs when attachment to social bonds is diminished Symbolic Interaction Those with the power to assign deviant labels create deviance. Conflict Theory Elite deviance goes largely unpunished.
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Emile Durkheim: Functions of Deviance: Structural-functional analysis Affirms cultural values and norms Clarifies moral boundaries Promotes social unity Encourages social change Mertons Structural Strain Theory Traces origins of deviance to tensions cause by gaps of cultural goals and the means people have of achieving those goals Culture est. goals for people; social structure provide or fail to provide means for people to achieve those goals Imbalance can compel individuals into deviant behavior Social Control Theory: Hirschi Travis Hirschi developed social control theory to explain the occurrence of deviance Deviance occurs when personal or group attachment to social bond is weakened People internalize social norms b/c of attachments to others When bond is broken, deviance occurs. Symbolic Interaction: Theories of Deviance Differential Association : Deviant Behavior is learned through interaction with others People pass on deviant expectations through their social groups and networks Labeling Theory Responses of others is most significant in deviance A person may become deviant because of a label, even if he/she did not engage in deviant behavior. Social Stigmas A stigma is an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited.
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