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state admin - CHAPTER 9 STATE ADMINISTRATION Introduction...

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CHAPTER 9 STATE ADMINISTRATION
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Introduction Defining Terms Bureaucracy is a type of organization associated with red tape, specialization, and hierarchy. Hierarchy refers to an organizational arrangement that puts few people with maximum power at the top of the organization, and many people with little power at the bottom. Public policy is the results of decisions made by the three branches of government. Public administration refers not only to the activities necessary to carry out public policy but also to the various bodies, and those who work in them, that are responsible for these activities. The term agency refers to any department, agency, commission, board, bureau, or other public administrative organization. Administrator and executive refer to top-level individuals in public administration. Any state employee may be a bureaucrat , but the term is generally limited to administrators, executives, and lower echelon white-collar office employees.
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Introduction The Executive and the Bureaucracy Because implementing the law is formally the responsibility of the executive branch, the bureaucracy is nominally headed by the chief executive. However, the bureaucracy permeates all branches of government and its interests and powers crisscross the entire governmental structure. In Texas, the governor is a weak chief executive with insufficient power to control the bureaucracy. Some consider the administrative state so powerful as to constitute a fourth branch of government. A major concern in democratic political systems is how to justify or legitimize the power of unelected career administrators.
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State Administrative Agencies State Administrative Agencies Introduction State administration in Texas is confusing as a result of three essential characteristics: There is no single, uniform organizational pattern. There are numerous exceptions to the traditional bureaucratic characteristics of hierarchy. The number of state agencies depends upon one’s method of counting. There are at least five different types of top policy makers in state agencies: elected executives, appointed executives, an elected commission and board, ex officio boards and commissions, appointed boards and commissions.
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State Administrative Agencies State Administrative Agencies Introduction, cont. Agencies headed by a single elected or appointed executive follow traditional hierarchical principles in having a single individual who is clearly in charge, but many agencies are headed instead by a multimember (three, six or more) board or commission, so that the hierarchical organization starts with the professional staff of the agency. Another complication in the state organizational structure is that one office, board, or commission may be responsible for the general policies of a number of separate agencies.
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