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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1 THE CONTEXT OF TEXAS POLITICS Population The U.S. Texas (Pct) 3.1 million (4.0%) 9.6 million (5.3%) 21.3 million (7.5%) 27.2 million (8.0%) 1900 1960 2001 2025 76 million 179 million 285 million 338 million African American Population The U.S.(Pct) 1999 2004 2025 34.8 mil (12.8%) 34.8 mil (12.8%) 47.1 mil (13.9%) Texas (Pct) 2.5 mil (12.3%) 2.5 mil (12.3%) 3.9 mil (14.2 %) Texas (Pct) 6.0 mil (30.2%) 6.7 mil (32%) 10.2 mil (37.6%) Hispanic Population The U.S. (Pct) 1999 31.3 mil (11.5%) 2000 35.3 mil (12.5%) 2025 61.4 mil (18.2%) TEXAS HEALTH Infant deaths per 1,000 live births Texas Rank U.S. 1960 28.9 1990 8.1 13 9.2 2000 6.3 14 7.0 (Lower deaths = better rank) Texas does much better than other states when it comes to infant mortality, which is considered the leading health indicator. However, the infant mortality rate for African-American babies is more than twice the rate for babies of all other races. Health Insurance Coverage Percentage Covered (2000) U.S. Texas 86% 79% Texas ranks 49th in the nation in the percentage of residents covered by health insurance. TEXAS INCOME AND POVERTY Median household income (constant 1998 dol.) Texas Rank U.S. 1990 $35,204 29 $37,343 1998 $35,783 36 $38,885 2004 $49,086 37 $53,69 Percent of population below the poverty level Texas Rank U.S. 1990 15.9 11 13.5 1998 15.0 10 12.7 2004 16.6 8 13.1 Texas has a lower income and a higher rate of poverty than the average U.S. household. TEXAS EDUCATION Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed High School (Including Equivalency): 2004 Universe: Population 25 years and over Data Set: 2004 American Community Survey Texas Rank U.S. 78.7% 49 83.9% Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree: 2004 Texas Rank U.S. 25.6% 25 27% Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed an Advanced Degree: 2004 Texas Rank U.S. 8.2% 31 9.9% Teachers' average salaries Texas Rank U.S. 1990 $28,321 33 $33,123 1998 $33,648 34 $39,385 85.4% of the nations average LAW ENFORCEMENT The United States holds the dubious distinction of having the 2nd largest incarcerated population in the world (Russia is 1st but the rate is nearly the same as the U.S.), with 2 million people behind bars as of year-end 1999. With only 5% of the world's population, the U.S. holds a quarter of the world's prisoners. Violent crime rate per 100,000 population Texas Rank U.S. 1990 761 10 732 1997 603 17 611 Federal & state prisoners per 100,000 population Texas Rank U.S. 1990 295 18 311 1999 726 2 465 Texas has lowered its violent crime rate at an even faster rate than the rest of the nation over the last decade. But in the process, Texas now (as of 1999) has the highest prisoner rate in the country. African-Americans in Texas are 7 times more likely to be in prison than whites. A person who lives in Texas is 7 times more likely to be in prison than a person living somewhere else in the world. A person who lives in Texas is 28 times more likely to be in prison than a person living in Japan. TEXAS STATE GOVERNMENT General revenue per capita Texas Rank U.S. 1990 $1,528 49 $2,080 1997 $2,349 49 $3,048 2002 $2,632 49 $3,707 As has been the long time tradition, Texas state government taxes far less per capita than other states in the U.S. Texas History: A Chronology The Earliest Days Texas has existed under the flags of Spain, France, Mexico, the Republic (and state) of Texas, the Confederacy, and the United States. What is now Texas was inhabited by as many as 130,000 Native Americans of various tribes at the time of the first European exploration. With the establishment of a series of missions beginning in 1690, Spain's influence came to be spread across South Texas. Mexico's achievement of independence from Spain in 1821 led to a period of anarchy in Texas. Although the numbers of Spaniards and Mexicans who settled in Texas before 1821 were small, they left rich influences. Texas History: A Chronology AngloAmerican Colonization The Mexican government, hoping Anglo settlers lured by free land would support its interests against the U.S., gave Stephen F. Austin a land grant and permission to settle 300 families in Texas. As the number of colonies in Texas grew, settlers became increasingly alienated from Mexico as a result of cultural and political differences. Texas History: A Chronology Revolution Fearing further AngloAmerican settlement, the Mexican government clamped down, prompting demands for concessions from the settlers. A brief revolution, marked by the battle of the Alamo and, later, a final victory at San Jacinto, secured independence for Texas. Texas grew rapidly following the war, but independence brought many problems that bolstered sentiment for annexation by the U.S. On December 29, 1845, Texas voluntarily gave up its sovereignty and joined the Union as the 28th state. Texas History: A Chronology Early Statehood The MexicanAmerican War, triggered by Texas's entry into the Union, forced Mexico to relinquish its claim to Texas. Because Texas was a slave state, its annexation was supported by the slave states and opposed by the states where slavery was illegal. Although there were no political parties in the Republic of Texas, debate generally divided along pro and antiHouston lines and most Texans identified with the national Democrats' views. Fearful of the implications of Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency, Texas and other Southern states seceded from the Union in 1861. The industrial North ground down the agricultural South's ability to wage war over four years and the Confederacy fell apart in the spring of 1865. In an event still celebrated as "Juneteenth," federal troops landed at Galveston and declared the emancipation of all slaves in Texas on June 19, 1865. Texas History: A Chronology PostCivil War Texas Efforts in Texas and throughout the South to obstruct national policy after the war strengthened the position of the Radical Republicans in Congress and led to the imposition of military rule. African American support for Republicans reinforced existing White support for Democrats and gave rise to the Ku Klux Klan with its use of intimidation and violence to keep Blacks in a position of inferiority. E. J. Davis, Republican governor from 1870 to 1874, used the substantial powers given his office by the Constitution of 1869 and angered most White Texans by implementing policies consistent with those of the Radical Republicans in Washington. Davis's initial refusal to vacate the office following his defeat at the hands of Democrat Richard Coke in the gubernatorial election of 1873 added to the mistrust of Republicans that his administration engendered among Texans. In 1876, after Democrats regained control of the state government, a constitution representing a return to the traditional principles of the Jeffersonian Democrats was adopted. The Late Nineteenth Century Texas History: A Chronology The Texas economy, based primarily on cotton production, recovered quickly after the Civil War. To fill the need for additional transportation, the state legislature gave millions of acres of land to the railroads, thus establishing a close relationship between the state government and large corporations. Thousands of miles of railroad track were laid in the late 1800s. Violence against African Americans, much of which was led by the Ku Klux Klan, was a major problem for Texas in the years following Reconstruction. Although conservative Democrats controlled state government at the end of the century, their rule was challenged by other parties and interest groups. Labor unions organized but were severely limited by state actions. Because many farmers in Texas were tenant farmers faced with serious economic problems, the agrarian movement drew considerable support and Grangers played a significant role in the drafting of the Constitution of 1876. The People's, or Populist, party also challenged Democratic dominance for a time and, although its political strength waned after 1896, populism remains an influential element in Texas. In the 1890s, Governor Hogg's administration initiated many agrarian reforms, but changes in the membership of the legislature gradually Texas History: A Chronology The Early Twentieth Century Major oil discoveries in 1901 and in 1930 made Texas the world's leading oil producer and provided an important source of jobs and tax revenues for the state. One expression of the state's Populist tradition is its ambivalent relationship with the major corporations in the oil industry as exemplified by the antitrust actions of the early 1900s. Much progressive legislation was passed during this period, but the poll tax and "White primary," which greatly reduced African American voter turnout in particular, ran counter to the progressive spirit. Inefficient oil and gas production practices and the clearcutting of millions of acres of East Texas pine forests reflected an indifferent attitude toward resource conservation that in some measure still exists in the state. Texas History: A Chronology Wars and Depression World War I brought major changes to Texas as the state became an important military training base and large numbers volunteered for military service. In the early 1920s, the influence of the Ku Klux Klan flourished in both local and state politics. Texas voted Republican in the presidential election of 1928, rejecting Democrat Alfred Smith, a New Yorker, a Roman Catholic, and an antiprohibitionist. Although the Great Depression was less severe in Texas than in more industrialized states, in part because of the major oil discovery in East Texas in 1930, Texas did have problems associated with low prices and overproduction in the oil industry. Regulation of oil production by the Texas Railroad Commission and the enactment of a "Hot Oil Act" by Congress restored stability and profitability, at least for the major oil companies. For four decades, the Railroad Commission's regulation of oil production exerted a powerful effect on the world price of oil. Although the growth of the oil industry mitigated the effects of the Depression, Texas did suffer largescale unemployment, bank failures, and other problems. Economic relief for the many Texans affected by the Depression came not from the state but from the federal government, which poured more than $1.5 billion into Texas in various programs. On the verge of becoming a major industrial state before World War II began, Texas again contributed greatly to the national war effort. Texas History: A Chronology Shivercrats and Segregation During the 1940s, Texas became increasingly urbanized and industrialized. In 1948, the tradition of "colorful" Texas politics was continued as Lyndon Johnson won a U.S. Senate seat by 87 votes. Conservative Democrats increasingly dominated Texas politics after the war with millions of dollars in school funds spent to delay the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) U.S. Supreme Court decision, which declared segregation unconstitutional. The influx of immigrants after World War II increased the state's cultural diversity. Texas, since the 1950s, has become more diverse politically with Republicans and liberal Democrats managing to win statewide office. Minority group candidates have enjoyed increasing success, especially after the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act and U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison broke the gender barrier. Gradual Political Change Texas History: A Chronology Contemporary Texas Texas enjoyed a period of good times in the 1970s as the OPEC boycott and the onset of energy shortages caused major increases in the price of oil. In the 1980s, a market glut dropped oil prices and plunged the state's economy into a recession marked by the end of the decade by massive bank failures and property foreclosures. As the crime rate shot up, particularly crimes related to property, Texans insisted on better law enforcement and longer sentences for convicted criminals. The combination of a declining revenue base and an increasing demand for better services necessitated large tax increases in 1984, 1986, and 1987, which, given the state's reliance on sales taxes, made the tax system in Texas even more regressive. The situation reversed itself again in the 1990s as new industries began to replace the declining oil industry as sources of prosperity for the state. By the end of the century Texas had the eleventh largest economy in the world and more Texans were employed in hightech industries than by the oil industry. In 1994, Texas passed New York as the second most populous state in the country. In 2001 economic recession and terrorism were added to the old problems of poverty and drugs to create a new era on Texas politics. Whether its traditional political attitudes are capable of dealing with the challenges of the new era is open to question. Texas as a Democracy Defining Democracy In a democracy, the people's participation establishes the legitimacy of the government. Because the people make the laws, they are morally obligated to obey them. Free elections are necessary to insure majority rule, but certain rights must be preserved for minorities. Texas as a Democracy The Ideal and the Reality in Texas No democratic political systems are perfect; some are wellrun and government policy is arrived at through public participation, debate, and compromise, while others are badly run and characterized by mass apathy and private influence. The great majority of Americans believe in some ver sion of the theory of democracy even without being able to state it clearly. Given this fact, we may judge state government against the ideal of a democratic society in order to determine whether Texas approximate the ideal of a democratic polity. One major problem for democracy is the influence of private interests over public policy. Texas and American Federalism Defining the Federal System In a federal system governmental powers are shared among the national and state governments. As an example of the influence all three branches of the national government have on states, education, although primarily the responsibility of state government, is affected by laws passed by Congress, Supreme Court rulings, and presidential decisions. Texas and American Federalism The Impact of the Federal Government on Texas Government A significant portion of state revenue comes from federal grants. Historically, the Supreme Court has altered the state's behavior in many instances, especially in regard to civil rights and liberties. Congress allocates many of the amenities of government that effect the state's economy. Congressional mandates force the Texas legislature to raise and spend money. Texans fight and die in foreign wars entered into by the federal government and the war on terrorism has imposed new burdens on Texans. The president's discretionary powers, such as cutting tariffs or releasing federal disaster relief funds, may affect the state's economy. Federal Reserve Board action may constrict or stimulate the economy, thereby affecting both state revenues and demands on the state. Texas in the International Arena Texas Common Border with Mexico Although the U.S. Constitution forbids individual states to conduct foreign policy, Texas' shared border with Mexico has had an impact on the Texas economy and Texas politics. Areas of conflict and cooperation include the use of water, international trade, and criminal justice. The political choices of Texas politicians have consequences far beyond their own government. The Texas Political Culture The Concept of Political Culture Political culture is a shared framework of values, beliefs, and habits of behavior in regard to government and politics. Texas political culture is distinctive for a variety of reasons. The state's great size and its relative geographic isolation until the 20th century are important factors. Texas was an independent republic before joining the United States. Its mixture of the Old South and the West of the frontier contribute to the state's distinctiveness. The experience, shared with other Southern states, of slavery, defeat in a civil war and postwar occupation, and denying African Americans full citizenship undergird the state's conservative political culture. Reinforcing the state's southern cultural conservatism is an extreme individualism derived form the myth of the frontier. Based on the cultural patterns of the fifty states identified by Daniel Elazar, Texas is located at a midpoint between traditionalist and individualist political cultures. Though some Texans, particularly African Americans and Mexican Americans, tend to be separate from the political culture of the dominant Anglo majority, history and political institutions have shaped the assumptions that most Texans bring to politics. The intense patriotism of Texans is shaped by the myth that Texas is the most wonderful place to live that ever existed on the planet. The Texas Political Culture Conservatism The conservatism characterized by Thomas Jefferson's statement that "that government is best which governs least" has dominated Texas politics since the end of the Civil War. Conservatism refers to a general hostility to government activity, or laissez-faire, especially in the economic sphere and is consistent with the individualist political culture on economic issues and consistent with the traditionalist political culture on social issues. Texas conservatism minimizes the role of government in society while stressing an individualism that maximizes the role of businesspeople in controlling the economy. The Texas Political Culture Social Darwinism The belief that individuals who prosper and rise to the top of the socioeconomic ladder are worthy and deserving, while those who sink to the bottom are unworthy and deserve their poverty continues to dominate the thinking of many Texans. The prevalence of Social Darwinism has resulted in many state policies that are unusually stingy toward the underprivileged. Emanating from pseudo laissezfaire economic doctrine and Social Darwinism is a trickle-down theory of economic and social development (holding that everyone's situation can be bettered by insuring that business flourishes) which is common in Texas. Liberalism regards government activity as often a good thing. Although less influential in Texas politics, liberal politicians and ideas have occasionally been competitive with conservatism. Liberalism Economy, Taxes, and Services The Rise and Decline of the Texas Economy The Texas economy has been transformed in the 20th century, first by the boom in the oil industry and then by diversification into petrochemicals, aerospace, computers, and other industries. A 1996 survey found that Texas had the second most favorable business climate among the 50 states, and Forbes magazine ranked Austin as the best business city in the country in 2003. In the long run the policies that create a favorable business climate may create a fragile economy. In 2002 the Corporation for Enterprise Development flunked the Texas economy as a whole commenting that the disparity between the wealthy and the poor augured poorly for Texas' future. Texas ranks low among the states in a variety of measures of state services, a fact which suggests that Texas's laissezfaire ideology has not served its citizens well. The greatest accomplishment of Texas government in this century, keeping taxes low, may not be enough to meet future challenges. The Challenge of Jeffersonian Conservatism The People of Texas The Census The state's history has been marked by a succession of immigrations which have added to the original Indian population Spaniards, Anglo Saxons (some bringing African slaves), and Europeans, Asians, and Mexicans. The oil price depression of the late 1980s brought a brief outflow of migration, but the longterm pattern of immigrati...
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