Intro to Psych 101- Chapter 12.ppt - Sarah Grison Todd...

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Chapter 12 Social Psychology © 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION
12.1 How Do We Think About Other People? 2
We Make Snap Judgments About People Nonverbal behavior Researchers have found that people can make accurate judgments based on only a few seconds of observation Thin slices of behavior are powerful cues for forming impressions of others 3
We Make Snap Judgments About People Facial expressions One of the first things we usually notice about another person is the face The face communicates information such as Emotional state Interest Trustworthiness Eye contact is important in social situations, though how we perceive it depends on our culture 4
We Make Attributions About Other People Attributions are our explanations for events or actions, including other people’s behavior 5
We Make Attributions About Other People Types of attributions Personal attributions: People’s explanations for why events or actions occur that refer to people’s internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts Situational attributions: People’s explanations for why events or actions occur that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people’s actions 6
We Make Attributions About Other People Bias in attributions Fundamental attribution error: In explaining other people’s behavior, the tendency to overemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors Actor/observer bias: When interpreting our own behavior, we tend to focus on situations. When interpreting other people’s behavior, we tend to focus on personal attributes 7
We Tend to Stereotype Other People Maintaining stereotypes Once we form stereotypes, we tend to maintain them When we encounter someone who does not fit a stereotype, we may put that person in a special category rather than change the stereotype This practice is called subtyping 8
We Tend to Stereotype Other People 9
We Tend to Stereotype Other People Self-fulfilling prophecy People’s tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own expectations or other people’s expectations Rosenthal and Jacobsen, bloomers study 10
Stereotypes Can Make Us Feel and Act Certain Ways Prejudice Negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype Discrimination The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice 11
Stereotypes Can Make Us Feel and Act Certain Ways Ingroup/outgroup bias Those groups that we belong to are ingroups, and those that we do not belong to are outgroups According to social identity theory our group memberships are an important part of how we view ourselves One consequence of categorizing people as ingroup or outgroup members is ingroup favoritism 12
Stereotypes Can Make Us Feel and Act Certain Ways

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