ANP1106 Midterm 1 Notes.docx - ANP1106 Midterm 1 Notes...

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ANP1106 Midterm 1 Notes – Topics 1-4 (Chapters 1, 5-8) Chapter 1 - Anatomical Terms Anatomical position o Anatomical reference point o Body is erect with feet slightly apart, palms facing forward and thumbs pointed away from the body The terms right and left refer to those sides of the person or the cadaver being viewed - not those of the observer Directional terms o Refer to table 1.1 Regional terms o Axial part - head, neck, and trunk o Appendicular part - appendages or limbs, attached to the body's axis Body Planes and Sections o Sagittal plane - vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts (called parts instead of halves because not necessarily in halves) If planes lies exactly in the midline then it is called the median plane or midsagittal plane All other sagittal planes, offset from the midline, are parasagittal planes o Frontal plane - vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts (also called coronal plane ) o Transverse plane - horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior (also called cross section ) o Oblique section - cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical planes Dorsal body cavity o protects the fragile nervous system organs, has two divisions o Cranial cavity - in the skull, encases the brain o Vertebral/spinal cavity - runs within the bony vertebral column, encloses the delicate spinal cord o The cranial and vertebral cavities are continuous with one another Ventral body cavity o More anterior and larger of the closed body cavities, houses internal organs collectively called viscera o Thoracic cavity Surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest Lateral pleural cavity enveloping each lung (2) Mediastinum contains the pericardial cavity which encloses the heart and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea , and others) o The cavities are separated by the diaphragm o Abdominopelvic cavity Superior part: abdominal cavity - stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs Inferior part: pelvic cavity - lies in the bony pelvis and contains the urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum
Chapter 5 - Integumentary System 5.1 The skin consists of two layers: the epidermis and dermis Without our skin, we would quickly fall prey to bacteria and perish from water and heat loss The skin is composed of two distinct layers: o The epidermis , composed of epithelial cells, is the outermost protective shield of the body o The underlying dermis , making up the bulk of the skin, is a tough leathery layer composed of mostly dense connective tissue o Only the dermis is vascularized. Nutrients reach the epidermis by diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis.

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