psyc 101 biological aspects of psychology - Ch 3 Biological Aspects of Psychology Nervous system Biological Psychology The psychological specialty

psyc 101 biological aspects of psychology - Ch 3 Biological...

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Ch 3 Biological Aspects of Psychology Nervous system Biological Psychology- The psychological specialty focused on the physical and chemical changes that cause, and occur in response to, behavior and mental processes Nervous system- The bodies electrochemical communication circuitry Central nervous system (CNS)- The brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- The network of nerves that connects the brain and the spinal cord to other parts of the body PNS Somatic nervous system (SNS)- transmits information from the senses to the CNS and carries signals from the CNS to the muscles Sensory neurons (afferent) - nerves that provide information to the CNS about the environment Motor neurons (sensory)- nerves that the brain sends signals to control muscles and other organs to respond to the environment Autonomic nervous system (ANS)- carries messages from CNS to autonomously functioning organs: e.g. lungs, heart Sympathetic nervous system- readies the body for vigorous activities Spends energy “Fight or flight” Parasympathetic nervous system- typically influences the activity related to protection, nourishment, and growth of the body Preserves energy “Rest and digest” Nervous System Cells Two cell types in the nervous system: Neuron- the nerve cells that handle information-processing function Glia - provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly Neuron Cell body- a part of the neuron that contains the nucleus; also called the soma Cell membrane- protective outer layer of the cell body Nucleus- directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance Mitochondria – structures that generate energy for the cell Dendrites- treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receives information and orients it toward the cell body Axon- carries information away from the cell body towards other cells Axon terminal or terminal button Myelin sheath- a layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons
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Remember that axons carry signals away from the cell body, and dendrites detect those signals Action potential - the brief wave of positive charge that sweeps down the axon Ion channels, Polarized Resting potential - the stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron Refractory period - a short resting period between action potential All-or-nothing principle- the principle that once an electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (it’s
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