307530654-ICAO-2013-Environmental-Report.pdf - n l Air Qua...

This preview shows page 1 out of 224 pages.

Unformatted text preview: n l Air Qua lity In Inte A Te rna tion ch n res u s a e M ed s a b t e k Mar uels F e v i t a n r e t Al Org ol Glob ani al zat ion og Emiss s y ions al l o P ICAO nge g cin t f a r c r i at n r e t s e i ic an Loca ion t a i l Av a n io Clima te Ch a Fin Sy Noise g er Policies tatio n ies n ig t i m Adap Cooperatio n o i at States’ Action Plans Environment ICAO ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2013 AVIATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE Produced by the Environment Branch of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). 4 Message from the President of the Council of ICAO ICAO and its Member States are taking concrete steps toward coordinated and comprehensive action to address the impact of international aviation on the environment. Our ultimate goal in this regard remains a sustainable future for international aviation. Roberto Kobeh González President of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Following the adoption of a global policy by the 37th Session of the ICAO Assembly, which invited ICAO Member States to voluntarily submit action plans on their CO2 emission reduction activities, the Organization undertook intense capacity-building initiatives in consultation and cooperation with them. As a result, within just a few years, this programme has successfully facilitated the preparation and submission of State action plans representing approximately 80% of global international air traffic. This global coverage is expected to reach 90% by the end of 2013. ICAO has continued to develop policies, standards, guidelines and tools to facilitate the development of a “basket” of measures which have helped Member States design and implement their action plans. Progress has been achieved on all related elements, including technical Standards, operational initiatives, sustainable alternative fuels, and market-based measures (MBMs). Each element of the basket can be used to achieve ICAO’s collective global aspirational goals of improving annual fuel efficiency by 2%, while stabilizing global CO2 emissions at 2020 levels. The Organization is also focused on how to best support Member States that require assistance to implement the measures identified in their action plans. ICAO has been exploring partnerships with other international organizations and will continue to seek out new ways to facilitate access to financing. The impressive amount of work undertaken by ICAO, its Member States, the aviation industry and other stakeholders being showcased by this 2013 edition of the ICAO Environmental Report can serve as a basis for discussions and decisions on how best to move ahead in a number of aviation and environment-related fields. Continuous progress in all of these areas over the coming years will be paramount for achieving ICAO's environmental goals, and ultimately, the sustainable future of aviation. icao environmental report 2013 5 Message From the Secretary General This 2013 edition of the ICAO Environmental Report builds on the first and second editions published in 2007 and 2010 respectively. It showcases the progress achieved to date, bringing together a vast array of ideas and solutions and identifying important new challenges to help advance the global discussion on aviation and the environment. Raymond Benjamin Secretary General of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) The last Session of the ICAO Assembly, held in October 2010, clearly mandated ICAO to take bold and meaningful action that would help to lead the international aviation community toward an environmentally sustainable future. Together we are achieving steady progress, developing robust policies and global initiatives to encourage and facilitate the implementation of measures to reduce the impact of international civil aviation on the environment. Besides the intense outreach and capacity-building we’re presently engaged in to encourage and assist States in the preparation of national action plans on CO2 emissions reduction, not to mention important recent advances achieved by ICAO’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), ICAO continues to lead the development of environmental trends and tools to quantify the impacts of aviation operations and mitigation measures on the environment. Sound technical information and environmental data remain fundamental to well-informed and considered decisions. Our sector has also recognized that the use of sustainable alternative fuels in commercial flights is now a reality. Airlines are using drop-in biofuels that do not require changes to aircraft design or fuel delivery systems, meaning that our next important challenge in this area will be facilitating the availability of these fuels at prices and quantities in line with the needs of operators. Since the last ICAO Assembly, the Organization has sought to further progress its work on market-based measures (MBMs), including the development of a framework to guide the application of MBMs to international aviation and the feasibility of a single global scheme. Much work is needed, and ICAO will continue to expeditiously progress its efforts in this area. Environmental protection is a global issue that requires collective, global solutions and ICAO is committed to meeting its responsibilities to bring about the sustainable future of international civil aviation. Doing so will require our sustained and global support for social and economic development objectives, while at the same time undertaking robust and effective measures to reduce the impact of international civil aviation on the environment. icao environmental report 2013 6 table of contents Introductory Messages 4 Roberto Kobeh González, President of the Council of ICAO 5 Raymond Benjamin, Secretary General of ICAO ICAO Environmental Protection Programme 8 Boubacar Djibo, Director, Air Transport Bureau (ATB) Report Overview 9 Jane Hupe, Chief, Environment Branch, ATB Introduction to ICAO Environmental Activities 11 Towards Environmental Sustainability A1 38th Assembly Resolution on International Aviation and Climate Change 13 Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) Chapter 1 – AVIATION and Environment OUTLOOK 18 Air Traffic and Fleet Forecasts 22 Environmental Trends in Aviation to 2050 28 Enhancing European Modelling Capabilities 32 The Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) 36 Development of New Environmental Software Tools 40 ICAO Environmental Tools 42 Case Study: ASECNA Fuel Savings Using IFSET 45 Assisting Carbon Emission Management at Airports 48 Aviation and Climate: State of the Science Chapter 2 – AIRCRAFT NOISE 56 Reducing Aircraft Noise – Overview 58 Aircraft Noise Certification and New ICAO Noise Standards 61 ICAO Technology Goals for Noise – Second Independent Expert Review 65 Noise Research Aimed at Technology Solutions 73 Establishing New Noise Standards for Civil Supersonic Aircraft – Status Report Chapter 3 – LOCAL AIR QUALITY 80 Local Air Quality – Overview 83 Development of a Particulate Matter Standard for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines 87 Industry Led NOx Emissions Technology Review 92 The ICAO Airport Air Quality Manual icao environmental report 2013 7 Chapter 4 – GLOBAL EMISSIONS 96 Global Emissions – Overview technology 100 Pushing the Technology Envelope 103 ICAO Goals for Aviation Fuel Burn Reduction from Technology 108 Development of an ICAO Aeroplane CO2 Emissions Standard Operations 112 Operational Improvements to Reduce Global Emissions – Overview 114 ICAO Block Upgrades 116 Two New ICAO Manuals on Reducing Emissions Using Enhanced Aircraft Operations 119 Impact of Operational Changes on Global Emission Levels sustainable alternative fuels 122 Sustainable Alternative Fuels for Aviation – Overview 126 Challenges for the Development and Deployment of Sustainable Alternative Fuels In Aviation 132 Stakeholder Initiatives – Development of Alternative Fuels in Aviation market-based measures 138 Market-based Measures – Overview 141 Potential Impacts of Market-based Measures on International Aviation 145 IATA Agreement on Carbon Neutral Growth 146 Offset Credits as an Option for “Destination Green” 150 Achieving Carbon Neutral Growth from 2020 154 Market-based Measures and the United Nations Chapter 5 – STATE ACTION PLANS 158 State Action Plans to Reduce Aviation CO2 Emissions Chapter 6 – ASSISTANCE AND FINANCING 168 Assistance and Financing for International Aviation Emissions Reduction 170 Financing the Development of Aviation Biofuels in Latin America and the Caribbean 174 UNDP: Leveraging Climate Finance for a Sustainable Future 178 The EU as a Partner for Low Carbon Development Chapter 7 – ADAPTATION 182 Adaptation – Overview 185 Leading the Way Toward Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change 189 Adaptation: The Time to Act is Now 192 Case Study: Climate Change Adaptation Plan at Heathrow Chapter 8 – PARTNERSHIPS AND COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 196 ICAO’s Cooperation with other UN Bodies and International Organizations – Overview 200 Flightpath to a Sustainable Future 202 Negotiations on a Future Global Climate Change Agreement 204 International Air Transport – Key To Climate Change Response 205 ICAO Contribution to Environmental Sustainability In the United Nations System 207 UNWTO and ICAO: A Collaborative Approach on Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change Acknowledgments icao environmental report 2013 8 ICAO Environmental Protection Programme Boubacar Djibo Director, Air Transport Bureau (ATB) In 2010, the 37th Session of the ICAO Assembly reaffirmed the responsibility of ICAO and its Member States to achieve maximum compatibility between the safe and orderly development of civil aviation and the quality of the environment. It focused the Organization’s efforts in this regard on three environmental goals: • To limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise. • To limit or reduce the impact of aviation emissions on local air quality. • To limit or reduce the impact of aviation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on the global climate. This mandate is carried out by ICAO’s Air Transport Bureau, which oversees the activities of the Organization’s Environment Branch and Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) – a recognized international forum of environmental experts from both the regulatory and industry sectors. The ICAO Council reviews and adopts CAEP recommendations. It informs and provides recommendations to the ICAO Assembly, which meets every three years to establish policies on all aviation matters including aviation environmental protection. The Organization also produces complementary studies, reports, manuals, and circulars on the subject of aviation and the environment. With respect to ICAO’s work on aircraft noise, the ICAO Balanced Approach policy for noise management provides the framework under which States can address noise issues around their airports. In recent years the CAEP has been conducting a thorough review of new technologies available for the reduction of noise at source, undertaking substantial work on the environmental and economic impacts of adopting more stringent noise certification standards. This work culminated in consensus agreement during the CAEP/9 meeting in February 2013 to recommend a new Chapter 14 Noise Standard which is 7 EPNdB below ICAO’s current limit. On the issue of local air quality improvement, ICAO has already adopted regulatory Standards for the certification of nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC). A great deal of new information is also now becoming available in the field of particulate matter (PM) and its impacts, which will potentially lead to the development of a new standard in this area. Climate change was the main focus of the environment-related deliberations at the 37th Assembly and it was noted that, to reduce international aviation CO2 emissions and promote sustainable aviation growth, a comprehensive approach would be necessary. This is where the Organization’s efforts have been focused since 2010, progressing work on the development of a “basket” of measures which includes technological standards, operational measures, alternative fuels, and market-based measures. Very positive results have been achieved on all fronts. I look forward to seeing how the 38th Assembly will respond to these outcomes, and especially to the new priorities and roadmap it will set for the international aviation community on all matters relating to aviation environmental protection. icao environmental report 2013 9 Report Overview The ICAO Environmental Report 2013 provides an overview of the main developments related to aviation and the environment during the period 2011 to 2013. As in previous ICAO Environmental Reports (2007 and 2010), the goal was to consolidate into one single publication a comprehensive and reliable compendium of information on the work of ICAO and its Member States and other organizations involved in this area. Jane Hupe Chief, Environment Branch, ATB After the last ICAO Assembly in 2010, the Organization embarked on a very active work programme with special focus on climate change issues including: development of: a new CO2 certification Standard; sustainable alternative fuels; market-based measures; State action plans; and assistance to States. Global debates on sustainability, in connection with the UNCSD conference (Rio+20), have brought new perspectives to the environmental sustainability of air transport. Discussions under the UNFCCC process on a future global climate deal and its new flexible mechanisms have implications for the discussions under the purview of ICAO, in particular on a global market-based measure for international aviation. The Organization closely followed these international developments, as well as the debates around the inclusion of international aviation in the EU-ETS, the EU decision to “stop the clock”, and the announcement by IATA to support a global offsetting scheme to achieve carbon neutral growth from 2020. So much has happened during the last triennium amidst this dynamic and evolving scenario, that it was very difficult to select the material for inclusion in this Report. It was therefore decided to focus on the information that would be most relevant to support well-informed debates and decisions by ICAO Member States at the 2013 Assembly, and which would form an important basis for progressing the ICAO environmental work in the next triennium. This information was showcased during the ICAO Symposium on Aviation and Climate Change (May 2013), and it is now compiled within these pages for the reader's easy reference. This Report consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 is an Aviation and Environment Outlook, including present and future trends in traffic, noise, and emissions. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are dedicated respectively to the mitigation of aviation's impact on Aircraft Noise, Local Air Quality, and Global Emissions. Chapter 5 describes the initiatives of the Organization in support of the preparation and submission of State Action Plans. Chapter 6 explores avenues for Assistance and Financing, and Chapter 7 addresses Adaptation. Finally, Chapter 8 describes ICAO’s Partnerships and Cooperation with Other Organizations. Written in accessible language, each chapter of the Report begins with a summary overview to familiarize readers with the subject being addressed, followed by subject-focused articles provided by various experts. Many of the featured articles summarize studies and reports by the foremost international experts and renowned scientists in their fields. I sincerely hope that you enjoy reading this Report, and that it will stimulate productive and enlightened discussions on aviation and the environment, while at the same time, demystifying commonly-held misconceptions. Arriving at optimal solutions begins with clearly defining the challenges and this can only be achieved by providing the most recent valid information. This is especially true for climate change, which is one of the most pressing global issues of this early part of the 21st century and a top priority for icao environmental report 2013 10 the entire UN system.With the increasing engagement of its Member States, and close cooperation with the aviation industry and other stakeholders, ICAO is taking concrete actions and moving closer towards the “Future We Want”: a future in which international air transport is sustainable. About ICAO and the Environment ICAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1944, with the signing of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, to promote the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation throughout the world. It sets standards and regulations necessary for aviation safety, security, efficiency, capacity and environmental protection. The Organization serves as the forum for cooperation in all fields of civil aviation. ICAO has been at the forefront of aviation environmental issues since the late 1960s. The Organization’s work on the environment focuses primarily on those problems that benefit most from a common and coordinated approach on a worldwide basis, namely aircraft noise and engine emissions. Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) for the certification of aircraft noise and aircraft engine emissions are covered by Annex 16 of the Convention. ICAO has a membership of 191Contracting States and works closely with other UN bodies and international organizations with an interest in aviation. ICAO has established three environmental goals: 1. To limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise. 2. To limit or reduce the adverse impact of aviation emissions on local air quality. 3. To limit or reduce the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. icao environmental report 2013 Acknowledgements ICAO wishes to thank the authors from various States and disciplines who have kindly shared their expertise, imagination and enthusiasm, along with the CAEP Working Group Rapporteurs and Experts. The Organization is truly grateful to them, and believes that their collective insights will stimulate dialogue and contribute to defining sustainable climate change solutions. ICAO looks forward to receiving comments and suggestions on how to improve future editions of the ICAO Environmental Report. The Environment Branch, of the ICAO Air Transport Bureau (ATB) is in charge of progressing the work of the Organization in this field. It is also responsible for providing support and managing the activities of the ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP). CAEP is a technical committee of the ICAO Council and undertakes most of the work of the Organization for the development of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) in this area. It is an international forum that involves close to 400 experts for the study and development of measures to minimize the impact of aviation on the environment. Every technical proposal developed by CAEP is analysed according to four criteria: technical feasibility, environmental benefit, economic reasonableness, and the interrelationship among measures. The ninth meeting of CAEP (CAEP/9) was held from 4 to 15 February 2013. The ICAO Council reviews and adopts the CAEP recommendations and considers other relevant matters in this area. It then reports to the ICAO Assembly, the highest body of the Organization, where the main policies on aviation environmental protection are adopted and translated into Assembly Resolutions. The Organization also produces studies, reports, manuals, and circulars on the subject of aviation and environment. More information on ICAO’s activities in this area can be found at: 11 Towards Environmental Sustainability By Jane Hupe, Chief, Environment Branch of ICAO As this third edition of the ICAO Environmental Report is published, we find ourselves at an exciting time; it b...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture