Week3 Musical textures in Arab

Week3 Musical textures in Arab - Music and Sound Listening...

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Unformatted text preview: Music and Sound Listening for musical textures in Arab music Terms for week 3 Quality Pitch (interval, mode, scale) Duration (pulse, rhythm, meter) Form (strophic, refrain) Intensity Interval Iqa Khana Modes Maqam Qasidah Sama`i Scales Sound sources (idiophone, chordophone, aerophone, membranophone, electrophone) Texture (monophonic, biphonic, homophonic, polyphonic, heterophonic) Music of the Arab Middle East Main Arab instruments 1. 2. 1. 1. 2. UCLA Near East Ensemble SachsHornbostel system Chordophone: instruments with strings that can be plucked or bowed Four types of chordophones: lutes, harps, lyres, zither `Ud (plucked lute) Qanun (plucked zither) Aerophones: instruments that sound by vibrating air Nay (reed flute) Membranophone: sound is produced by a membrane stretched over an opening Tablah, darbukkah, or dumbak (singleheaded drum) Riqq (tambourine) Maqam Pitch systems and scales (p. 23) Maqam: scalar system with 24 pitches to the octave Maqamat (pl.) UCLA Near East Ensemble ( www.ethnomusic.ucla.edu/ensembles/worldmu ) Musical textures Definitions (see p. 32) Monophonic: single line/voice(s); LG 15 (CD 1/15), p. 33 Biphonic: melody with drone (khoomii), Indian music; LG 10 (CD 1/10), p. 18 Homophonic: parts perform different pitches but move in the same rhythm; LG 71 (CD 3/12), p. 390 Polyphonic/polyrhythmic: West African music (Senegalese mbalax); LG 16 (CD 1/16), p. 36 Heterophonic: Middle East; LG 18 (CD 1/18), p. 41 "Ruba `iyyat alKhayyam" Qasidah: Egyptian, Middle Eastern genre Text: Omar al Khayyam (d. ca. 1120) Composer: Riyad Sinbati; composed the piece ca. 1949 1950 Performer: Umm Kulthum (18961975) What is music? Definition of music (p. 4) Definitions are culture specific Inuit (Canadian Central Arctic), Chukchi (Siberia), and Ainu (Japan) Music and Islam EXAMPLE: Call to Prayer (Adhan), Smithsonian Global Sounds Texture? Melody? God is most Great (4x) I testify that there is no god but God (2x) I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of God (2x) Come unto the Prayer! (2x) Come unto prosperity! (2x) God is most Great (2x) There is no god but God. Umm Kulthum: A Voice Like Egypt (DVD310) Significance to Egypt and the Middle East Vocal training Women, music, and public places Music and politics (colonialism, nationalism) Music and modernization Tarab (ecstasy) ...
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