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Unformatted text preview: Music and Setting
Music in Mumbai, India Mumbai, India Mega city (populations greater than 10 million) Ancient history European colonialism Bollywood Multiethnic and multi religious setting Unity in diversity Music as an expressive vehicle for Mumbai's diversity and cohesion Soundscape of Mumbai Ganesh Chaturthi festival Originally a Hindu festival, now celebrated across ethnic and religious communities Bhajan: devotional songs sung in Marathi Marathi folk songs "Praise Ganesh" (LG 22, CD 1/22), Hindu ritual song "Mumbhai" (LG 23, CD 1/23, pp. 745) Film songs (Bollywood) Western popular music: rock, disco, hip hop European classical music Indian classical music: Hindustani (north) and Karnatik (south) Key elements of Hindustani music Tanpura (drone instrument) Rag or raga (system of modes and melodic contours) Sitar (plucked lute) Tala (system of rhythmic cycles) Tabla (pair of drums) Form: Alap (freerhythm), Jor (quasipulsatile), Gat (metered) "Rag Des" (LG 10, CD 1/10, p. 18): Ustad Vilayat Khan, sitar Raga Definition and characteristics
1. 2. 3. 4. Sargam (solfege) Raga shahana: Sa, Re, ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, ni, Sa Ascending and descending scale Pitch hierarchy Characteristic phrases and melodic ornamentation Extramusical associations (time of day) Tala
beats 1 X 2 3 4 5 X 6 7 8 9 O 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 X Ustad Vilayat Khan and Ustad Shujaat Khan Ustad Vilayat, sitar and Ustad Shujaat Khan, surbahar Raga Shahana Alap (Ch. 1, 0:0031:25): raga introduced and developed Jor (Ch. 2, 31:2551:38): pulse (tintal) emerges in the chikari strings Gat (Ch. 3, 51:421:09:30): tabla enters; using rhythmic passages on the chikari strings Summary for week 4 Accra and Mumbai Ghanaian drumming traditions Hindustani classical music Cities as musical "settings" Ethnic and religious diversity Rural to urban migration Global and local ...
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- Fall '07