AnthFinalKeyTermsOutline - Reciprocity o Generalized Giver...

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Reciprocity o Generalized Giver does not expect anything in return Can be used to build good relations No immediate return, calculated balance, “evening out” Unconditional giving Ex. Parents giving presents to children o Balanced Giver expects immediate exchange of goods More impersonal Equivalent magnitude of value of items or services being exchanged Ex. Delayed labor exchanges between agriculturalists o Negative Partners of exchange don’t trust one another Assumed that other person is trying to take advantage Ex. Mafia Redistribution o Egalitarian Coordinator is an equal, not an authority Works harder than everyone else Given minimal rank and political clout o Stratified Coordinators have political power Sometimes have exclusive religious rights Can arrest lower class for not working Can assign taxes Large scale Bureaucratic Market o Products and services are for sale o Labor and land are commodities o Capitalism principle o Supply and demand economy Economic spheres of exchange in Tiv society o Subsistence sphere Exchange of food o Prestige sphere Exchange of rods that signify rank o Women sphere Exchange of women from families for marriage Homo economicus
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o The concept in some economic theories of man as a rational and self- interested actor who desires wealth, avoids unnecessary labor, and has the ability to make judgments towards those ends. Formalism o Economics is the study of the behavior that involves making choices that seek to achieve maximum gain from resources o Human desire is limitless o Stress commonalities among all economies Substantivism o Applying formalist economic theory to other societies is ethnocentric o Economy is embedded in the social, religious, and political aspects of society o Stress differences of among economies Potlatch o Form of negative reciprocity o Giving away of property to gain status o Success in potlatching leads to political gain Ceremonial inflation o Gifts became so plentiful their value became very inflated o Inflation led to the burning of property to increase value and show off amassed goods Urigubu o Gift of yams in Trobriand society to sister’s husband in order to insure security of family matriline o Form of potlatch Sagali o Succeeding big men hold inheritance ritual and funeral potlatch Egalitarian o There are as many positions of status or prestige as there are persons capable of filling them o Access to strategic resources of society is open to all equally o Usually hunter-gatherers or agriculturalists o Possession of wealth does not indicate status o Leadership is given naturally Derived from charisma, not inheritance Leaders work harder and are not rewarded for service Older people tend to be leaders o Most extreme form of punishment is ostracism Ranked o Positions of status are limited so that not everyone with capability can fill
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  • Summer '07
  • Cooper
  • ex, Law o Bureaucracy o Intensive agriculture o Formal religious institutions o Economic specialization o Food

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