Week6-Assgn-Asthma.docx - 1 Asthma Charity Nwosa Advanced Pathophysiology NURS-6501N Section 18 Walden University July 8 2018 2 Introduction Asthma is a

Week6-Assgn-Asthma.docx - 1 Asthma Charity Nwosa Advanced...

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1AsthmaCharity NwosaAdvanced PathophysiologyNURS-6501N Section 18Walden UniversityJuly, 8 2018.
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2IntroductionAsthma is a disease of airway inflammation, tightening of the airway and obstruction of air flow (Huether & McCance, 2017). Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease, affecting as many as one third of adolescents in some countries. The highest prevalence rates are reported in Australia and New Zeland; in the United States, the prevalance is fourty-eight percent (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Asthma is more prevalent in children and occurs more frequently inboys than in girls (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). If not diagnosed on time and left untreated, can become severe and can lead to airway obstruction, Asthma is a chronic disease and can occur at any age and affects both genders, about 6.8 million cases diagnosed are children, and 18.7 of those cases are adults in the United States (Huether & McCance, 2017). Pathophysiology of AsthmaExposure to defined allergens or to various nonspecific stimuli initiates a cascade of cellular activation events in the air ways, resulting in both acute and chronic inflammatory processes meditated by a complex and integrated assortment of locally released cytokines and other mediators (Huether & McCance, 2017). The earliest events in asthmatic airway responses are the activation of local inflammatory cells, principally mast cells and eosinophils (Huether & McCance, 2017). This can occur by specific IgE dependent mechanisms or indirectly via other processes, such as chemical irritants exposure (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Cellular elements contribute to the persistent inflammation of the bronchial, including dendritic cells (antigen presenting macrophages), T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. There is both an immediate (early asthmatic response) and a late
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3(delayed) response (Huether & McCance, 2017). Inflammatory mediators including histamine, bradykinins, leukotrienes and prostaglandins induce smooth muscle contraction (Huether & McCance, 2017). These inflammatory mediators cause vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, mucosal edema, bronchial smooth muscle contraction (bronchospasm), and mucus secretion from mucosal goblet cells with wall thickening and narrowing of the airways and obstruction to airflow. 2017). Asthma manifest differently in people, and they can range from an acute exacerbation to a severe attack (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Wheezing is a typical sign of
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  • Fall '17
  • keisha lovence
  • bronchial asthma , Ati Asthma

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