History 1003 Final Exam Study Guide.docx - History 1003...

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History 1003 Final Exam Terms: Modernism: - embrace the new - pushing forward- an umbrella term used to describe cultural and artistic developments from the late nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century. Stressed abstraction and universality but also uncertainty and the workings of the unconsciousness.Avant-Garde - “ahead of the rest”- artists applied to themselves- used by movements at the end of the nineteenth century celebrating art consideredahead of its time; associated with elitism and social radicalism Suffragettes - feminist movement in Britain in the early twentieth century seeking to obtain voting rights for women Second Industrial Revolution - 1880s-1910s - steel, chemicals, petroleum, consumer goods - a new phase of industrialization beginning in the 1870s with breakthroughs in chemistry, electricity, and steel production Cartels - group of companies that get together and share info in order to spilt territory, set prices and wages- an agreement among producers to coordinate prices, production, and marketingRevolutionary Socialists vs Revisionists Revolutionary Socialists: - against compromise wanted a complete revolution - may need violence - revolution must be pushed forward; shouldn’t sit back and wait Revisionists:- should compromise - better to get small gains now - can participate in democratic politics - revolution will eventually happen anyway
- most popular revisionists in Germany where is the Social Democratic Party - over 2 million members- largest in Europe Anarchists - believe in using violence, terror to overthrow the state and capitalism - responsible for the assassination of Russian Tsar Alexander II, in 1881- a nineteenth and early-twentieth-century ideology that viewed the state as a tool ofbourgeois interests and thus rejected participation in parliamentary politics in favor of revolutionary action Christian Socialism- Pope Leo XIII in 1891 releases “encyclical” calling for a solution to social problem - for worker reform- against most socialism/communism - against destruction of private property - most socialists are atheists - a nineteenth-century mass political movement that sought to curb the excesses andinequalities of liberal capitalism, but opposed the idea of socialist revolutionAnti-Semitism - almost everywhere Jews live they are minority - Jews were legally constricted with what they could become - mainly worked in banking, money and trade industry- didn’t like them because they’re blamed for death of Jesus - viewed as an ethnic group Pogroms - mainly in Russia - Jewish word- worst place to be Jewish in Europe Russia- 1903-1906, series of pogroms in Russia, 2,000 Jews killed- subject to most vicious anti-semitism supported by government - organized persecution of the helpless, particularly Jews; often involving beatings and burning of Jewish property; more common in eastern Europe, especially in the Pale of Settlement Dreyfus Affair - 1894-1906- Alfred Dreyfus was a captain in the French army, was Jewish and spoke fluent

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