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Unformatted text preview: Music and Ritual
The centrality and changing contexts of ritual performance Terms for Week 7 Bata Brdung Chant Dabtara Dbyangs Ge'ez Kebaro Liturgy Melekket Mode Rekrek Ritual rol mo Sadhana Santeria Sistra Sunday school songs Toque Ululation Music and ritual (p. 345) Music serves to shape and order the rituals that celebrate belief Music serves to enact and convey ritual's symbolic power and meaning Music serves to empower the participants Fundamental principles of Tibetan Buddhism and Santeria
1. 2. Buddhism mediates the individual's relationship to the spiritual world's cycles of life and rebirth Tibetan Buddhism: emphasizes monasticism (esoteric knowledge of the spiritual world) and rituals in which music plays a vital role Buddha: founder of Buddhism about 2,500 years ago Cycle of death and rebirth Tantras Mantras associated with each manifestation of the Buddha Chant, music and transcendence 1. Orisha: African deities combined with Catholic saints 2. Santeros/as 3. Ashe: life force, power, energy 4. Toques: rhythms and chants associated with each orisha 5. Divination and trance 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Music shapes and orders Tibetan Buddhist rituals Tibetan Buddhist rituals Chant and rhythms associated with deities structure ritual: chant instrumental interludenew chant Dbyangs: chants where the melodies consist of subtle changes in vocal timbre (bright, nasal, deep, multiphonic), loudness, and sliding pitches (notated) Rol mol ensemble including cymbals, trumpets, drums, and double reed instruments Rol mo (music of instrumental ensemble) Rol mo (cymbals) Trumpets (dunchen) Brdung (pronounced "dung"): Tibetan conception of "beat" "Melody for Mahakala" (LG 65, CD3/6, p. 350): listen for rol mol (cymbals) and harmonic singing VIDEO: Tibetan Monks Chant and Pray VIDEO: Buddhist Monks Of Tibet Music shapes and orders Santeria rituals 1. 2. 3. 4. Four types of Santeria ceremonies: oru de igbodu (oru seco) oru del eya aranla (oru cantado) iban balo (patio) cierre (close) Oru del igbodu (oru seco): bata drumming only First three toques are fixed Elegu (god of the crossroads) Ogn (god of iron) Oshosi (hunter god) Remaining toques can vary VIDEO: Conjunto de Tambores Bat 1. 2. 3. 4. Significance of musical sound in Tibetan Buddhist chant: offering to the Buddhist deities to create an atmosphere filled with the luminescent sound of the cosmos music is a means of understanding, transcendence, and enlightenment music is a reflection of the ultimate truth made briefly audible in this transitory world Music serves to focus the mind for meditation Buddhist deities Wrathful deities "Melody for Mahakala" (LG 65, CD3/6, p. 350) Chant and music associated with deities structure the day Signficance of rol mo (music of instrumental ensemble) Music enacts and conveys symbolic power and meaning in Tibetan Buddhist ritual Significance of sound in Santeria music Chanting: leader and chorus in callandresponse form Bat ensemble: okonkolo, itotele, iya; chach (small head or "the butt") and enu (large head or "mouth"); chaworo (brass bells) attached to iya only Yoruba bat drummers: origins in Nigeria, Benin Function of the iya Toque for Chang (LG 66, CD 3/7, pp. 3589) Music enacts and conveys symbolic power and meaning in Santeria rituals Chant empowers participants in Tibetan Buddhist rituals Tibetan Buddhists perform chants to move through the ritual process to a transformed (trance) state Enlightenment Unification with the deity Sadhana (ritual meditation text) Mantra (chanting) Music empowers participants in Santeria rituals Possession and music Chang: god/orisha of fire, thunder, and lightening Owner of bat drums Toque for Chango (LG 66, CD 3/7) Orisha "rides" the initiate Tibetan Buddhist diaspora (forced migration) Tibet and Chinese invasion (1959) Tibetan Buddhist diaspora in India, Nepal, North America Dalai Lama New settings and uses of Tibetan chants Yoruba diaspora (forced migration) Slavery and the Yoruba Candombl (Brazil) Santera/Lucum (Cuba) Vodou (Haiti) Shango (Trinidad) From Cuba to the Bronx: Felipe Garcia Villamil Felipe Garcia Villamil and Sons (see p. 354) Cuban immigrant Master of Cuba's three main Africanderived religions/cults Nation Heritage Award, National Endowment for the Arts Santeria and nonCuban initiates VIDEO (excerpt) Common characteristics of music in ritual Association of chants, rhythms and deities Ritual set off from mundane life Music orders rituals Music functions to attain spiritual transcendence ...
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- Fall '07