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Social Psychology

Social Psychology - Social Psychology Introduction and...

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Social Psychology 1/16/08 Introduction and Research Methods: Thinking of people – stable personality Power of the situation? o different contexts o behave different in different situations o personality always stable? o Fail to recognize situational factors Help vs hurt others? Research Methods: Variable definitions –  o conceptual definition – broad, general topics ex. Prejudice, aggression, physical attractiveness, helping behavior operational definition – how do we measure broad concepts ex. How many times do kids hit another when playing Correlational Research: o relationship between two variables o researcher measures two variables to see if they’re related ex. Is they’re a relationship between performance and self-esteem
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operational part   measure two variables, GPA, self-esteem linear progression   best fit line o correlation coefficient (r) – ranges from -1 to +1 positive r = positive slope of best fit line negative r = negative slope of best fit line stronger when closer to the poles o advantage of correlational research = any variables that can be measured, you can  correlate o disadvantage = correlation and causation are not equal o there are at least 3 causal explanations for the relationship A affects B B affects A Others Experimental Research: o tell us about cause and effect o how? Manipulate variable to create different experimental conditions Randomly assign to the conditions (even the groups) o Manipulation of feedback o Independent variable (IV) – what the experimenter manipulates Ex. Perceived feedback
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o Dependent variable (DV) – what the experimenter measures/assesses to see if it  depends on the IV Ex. Self-esteem o have both conceptual and operational definitions o in experiments, there are conceptual and operational IV’s and DV’s internal validity: o confident it’s a good experiment if the changes in DV results solely from  manipulation Experimental Research: o advantages – can determine causality gives researchers control o disadvantages – impossible to study some variables because of practical or  ethical considerations o unlike correlational studies, experiments allow for causal conclusions o what makes a study experimental is manipulation of IV random assignment to conditions
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Helping Behavior 1/23-28/08 1/23/08 Helping Behavior: o Kitty Genovese – attacked in front of her apartment at 3:20 attack went on for 45 minutes in view of 38 neighbors none of them interceded or even called police debate: people didn’t know what was going on  why did no one call the police?
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