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Rise of Christianity1.Judaisms & ChristianitiesPluralizing both Christianity and Judaism: tendency to stereotype religion, based on mistaken idea that ifyou take out one random passage from the scripture of a religion and that this de-contextualizedpassage is going to tell you about the essence of that religion.Judaism is not one monolithic faith, but to a series of different communities, traditions, and practices.Second Temple Judaism: form of Judaism that was practised not during the time of Solomon’s Temple,but during the time of the second Temple which was created after Jews had returned from exile andneeded to replace Solomon’s Temple.Different ways of practising Judaism:Sadducees (the Temple):one of the most powerful groups mentioned in the Bible, people who are incharge of the the Temple itself, the centre of religious practice, places where sacrifices occurred, andceremonies. The Jews believed that sacrifices were central to their religion, so they had a vested interestin respecting the Sadducees.Pharisees (Law & Ethics):they’re interested in a form of Judaism that wasn’t just based on ceremony,ritual, the temple, they really wanted to bring an ethical interpretation of the Jewish law to the masses.Is not just about the rituals you engaging,, ceremonies you attend, but it’s about going out there andliving up to all of those moral rules, that you find in texts like Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy.Zealots (Religion & Politics):fusing religion and politics, the message of Judaism wasn’t just ritualreligion, or just an ethical code, but a political message that tied into the self-determination of theJewish people and therefore post against imperial power (Roman Empire).Essenes (Ascetic Retreat):they represent ascetic of Judaism, meaning that you are engaged in forms ofspiritual practice that often involves refraining from physical pleasure or even consumption of food.Bringing a body under control, through a series of meditative practices, and cutting yourself off from day-to-day society.So you have a lot going on, when you think of Christianity coming after Judaism is not just cause-and-effect process, there’s a lot going on within Judaism before Jesus came along.Shared ElementsSame time there are a lot of elements that are shared by all of these different communities, and byChristianity. The most obvious one would bescripture, which the Jewish people would have known asthe Torah andTanakh..Which gets taken up by most Christians, and it gets rebranded as the Old Testament. There are a lot ofsharedethicalassumptions: Exodus (10 Commandments) which gets picked up by those communitiesand interpreted in different ways.Then you have, may be less shared by every group, but still shared by a lot of these is a tendencytowardsmessianic and apocalyptic ideas. Idea that an anointed messiah, is going to come and bring theJewish people to the next stage of their development: liberating from Rome, or bringing them into some