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Unformatted text preview: Freud and Psychoanalysis Freud had two models Topographical Model From about 1900 Structural Model From about 1923 Unconscious, Preconscious, Conscious Conscious: ideas, etc. that have enough energy Conscious: attached to them to be in our awareness currently Preconscious: not conscious at the moment Preconscious: because of insufficient energy, but could become so at any moment Unconscious: not conscious at the moment Unconscious: and cannot easily become conscious Unconscious, Preconscious, Conscious Conscious: ideas, etc. that have enough energy Conscious: attached to them to be in our awareness currently Preconscious: not conscious at the moment Preconscious: because of insufficient energy, but could become so at any moment Unconscious: not conscious at the moment Unconscious: and cannot easily become conscious 1 Unconscious, Preconscious, Conscious Unconscious: not conscious at the moment Unconscious: and cannot easily become conscious Why?
What is in the Unconscious is unacceptable to the Conscious A " critical agency", or Censor, keeps what is in the agency" Censor, Unconscious from reaching the Conscious system The Topographical Model Input Discharge Sensory End Motor End The Structural Model The Id ("Das Es" or "The It") (" Es" It" The Ego ("Das Ich" or "The I") (" Ich" I" The Superego ("ber-Ich" or "Over-I") (" ber-Ich" Over-I" 2 The Id The Id strives for immediate discharge of psychic energy (tension) that is released in the us by internal or external stimulation. And that is all it does! The Id Initially, a reflex apparatus Later, develops the primary process In both instances, following the pleasure principle: The initial principle of life, which is principle: to immediately reduce tension to its lowest possible level The Ego Because of the limitations of the primary process, the ego develops from energy siphoned off from the id Like the id the ego strives for tension reduction, but over the long run, in accord with the demands of reality 3 The Ego Uses the secondary process, uses reasoning to process, find in reality the images produced by the primary process Temporarily inhibits the Id when needed to achieve long-run goals The Superego The Superego strives to permanently prevent some forms of tension reduction that are considered immoral Whereas the ego grows out of our exposure to reality, the superego grows out of our exposure to socialization and cultural tradition The Ego and Mechanisms of Defense (1936) Anna Freud Repression Displacement Denial Projection Reaction Formation Intellectualization Rationalization Undoing Sublimation Identification with the Agressor 4 The Ego deals with Id, Superego, and Reality by: 1. Secondary process Ideal, but especially for children not always possible Sometimes, the best anyone can do. But can be used maladaptively Last resort, things are bad when you have to use these 2. Defense mechanisms 3. Symptoms (neurotic) Repression: Cathexis vs. AntiCathexis
Cathexis Anti-Cathexis Repression The most basic defense mechanism The use of anti-cathexis to keep a memory or wish from becoming conscious Repression is a component of almost every other defense mechanism Most defense mechanism = repression + .... 5 Displacement The second most basic defense mechanism Definition: The transfer of psychic energy from a repressed object-cathexis to a more acceptable object-cathexis object The "more acceptable" object will in some way acceptable" be associated with (usually resembling) the original object Seen in phobias Denial Like repression, but is keeping oneself unaware of parts of the external world Freud used the term in different ways Projection Attributing an unacceptable thought or feeling or your own to someone else instead of yourself This involves repression, plus an additional factor Ego senses something unacceptable from somewhere, but convinces self it is external Changes neurotic anxiety into reality anxiety Seen in paronoia 6 Reaction Formation Inhibiting an anxiety-provoking feeling by exaggerating its opposite, and/or conscious denial of the feeling combined with disgust with it Criticized by Popper as making psychoanalysis unfalsifiable Tends to be extreme and rigid Seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder, and paranoia Intellectualization Like denial, but knowledge of reality not repressed, only the unacceptable feeling that goes with it Also called "isolation of affect" affect" Rationalization Producing a seemingly logical rationale for an impulse or thought that would otherwise produce anxiety May be the most frequently used defense mechanism 7 Undoing Performing a ritualistic act to "undo" an undo" unacceptable act or thought Sublimation Two definitions of sublimation
Displacement of an impulse to a completely socially acceptable, socially approved outlet A displacement which discharges all the psychic energy bound up in the original impulse successfully Identification with the Aggressor Anna Freud named this one as a defense mechanism This is the basis of the "Stockholm Syndrome" Syndrome" Also the basis of the resolution of the Oedipus Complex 8 Final points on defense mechanisms They are unconscious; we don't know we don' are using them Repression and displacement are involved in most defense mechanisms Not all bad Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Freud' Development Stages focused on erogenous zones
Bodily areas which are chief focus of pleasure These areas highly cathected during stages Key to development is " follow the energy" energy" Three aspects of each stage
Physical focus Psychological Theme Adult character types " fixated" at that stage fixated" The Oral Stage Erogenous zone is the mouth Pleasure from
Sucking Swallowing Biting Oral-incorporative character Oral-sadistic character Oral-dependent character (theme is dependency) 9 The Anal Stage Erogenous zone is the anus-buttocks region Psychological theme: self-control Pleasure comes from Bowel movements Holding it in Anal-retentive character Anal-expulsive character The Phallic Stage Pleasure comes from penis/clitoris (focus) Theme: what it means to be a boy or girl Boys Castration anxiety Identification with the aggressor (father) Penis envy Blames mother Girls Latency Period Oedipus complex repressed Sexual energy sublimated 10 Genital Stage Sexual interest begins to focus on members of opposite sex Aimed toward reproduction More investment of psychic energy in external object-choices rather than own body (theme) Sexual partner Children, social interests The Neo-Freudians Carl Jung Karen Horney Alfred Adler Erik Erikson Freud vs. The Neo-Freudians
Less Less emphasis on emphasis on sex the unconscious More emphasis on the interpersonal Jung Adler Horney Erikson Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes* No Yes No Yes Yes Yes 11 Carl Jung Less emphasis on sex than Freud Believed in importance of unconscious, but added the Collective Unconscious Called his psychodynamic theory Analytical Psychology, Psychology, to distinguish from Psychoanalysis Jung: The Psyche
Psyche (The Personality) Ego (Includes the four functions) Personal Unconscious ( includes complexes) Collective Unconscious (Archetypes) Persona Anima Animus Shadow Self Other Archetypes Jung's Attitudes Jung' Introversion Extraversion Subjectively (Internally) oriented Introspective More withdrawn from the external world Objectively (Externally) oriented More aware of the external world Less interested in introspection 12 Jung's four psychological Jung' functions
Sensing Thinking Feeling Intuiting Erik Erikson Less emphasis on sex Psychosocial instead of Psychosocial psychosexual stages psychosexual More emphasis on the interpersonal Less emphasis on the unconscious Despite all this, considered himself adherent of Psychoanalysis Erikson's Eight Ages of Man Erikson'
Psychosexual Psychosocial Stage (Freud) Crisis
Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Virtue
Hope Will Purpose 13 Erikson's Eight Ages Continued Erikson'
Psychosexual Psychosocial Stage (Freud) Crisis
Latency Stage Genital Stage Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Virtue
Competence Fidelity Genital Stage Love Erikson's Eight Ages Continued Erikson'
Genital Psychosocial Crisis
Generativity vs. Stagnation Virtue
Care Genital Ego Integrity vs. Despair Wisdom Erikson on stages: "The strength acquired at any stage is tested by the necessity to transcend it in such a way that the individual can take chances in the next stage with what was most vulnerably precious in the previous one." one." 14 Erikson on Trust vs. Mistrust "The infant's first social achievement then, is his infant' willingness to let mother out of his sight...because she has become an inner sight... certainty as well as an outer predictability." predictability." "...trust implies...also that one is able to "...trust implies... consider oneself trustworthy enough so that the providers will not need be on guard lest they be nipped." nipped." Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt "Firmness must protect him against the potential anarchy of his yet untrained sense of discrimination, his inability to hold on and let go with discretion. As his environment encourages him to ` stand on his own feet', it must protect feet' him against meaningless and arbitrary experiences of shame and of early doubt." doubt." Initiative vs. Guilt "Initiative adds to autonomy the quality of undertaking, planning, and attacking a task for the sake of being active and on the move, where before self-will, more often than not, inspired acts of defiance..." defiance..." 15 Industry vs. Inferiority "He has experienced a sense of finality regarding the fact that there is no workable future within the womb of his family..." family..." Identity vs. Role Diffusion "The integration now taking place in the form of ego identity is more than the sum of childhood identifications. It is the accrued experience of the ego's ability to integrate these identifications ego' with the vicissitudes of the libido, with the aptitudes developed out of endowment, and with the opportunities offered in social roles." roles." Intimacy vs. Isolation "It is only as young people emerge from their identity struggles that their egos can master the sixth stage, that of intimacy...The avoidance of intimacy... such experiences because of a fear of ego loss may lead to a deep sense of isolation and consequent self-absorption." self-absorption." 16 Generativity vs. Stagnation "The fashionable insistence of dramatizing the dependence of children on adults often blinds us to the dependence of the older generation on the younger one. Mature man needs to be needed." needed." 17 ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychodynamic Theory