PSY32 - Lecture 9

PSY32 - Lecture 9 - Today Admin Exam 1 on Mon, Feb 25...

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Today *Admin *Exam 1 on Mon, Feb 25 *Review session this Fri, Feb 22 (here) *Basics of Experimentation *APA Format: Figures Last Time: Quasi-Experimental Design *What is it? *What kinds are there? * * * * * *Main problem? Jim has a bad day at work and stops at the bar for a couple of drinks on the way home. By the time he finishes, a couple of hours later, he has had five drinks. He gets into his car, drives too fast, slips on an icy patch as he rounds a curve on the way home, spins into oncoming traffic, and collides with Mary's car. Mary is pregnant. In the collision she suffers an abdominal injury, and loses the baby. What caused Mary's pregnancy termination? Causation *Cause * a contextually dependent event that makes something else exist *many factors are usually required for an effect to occur and we rarely know all of them or how they related to each other Causation *Effect * the difference between what did happen and what would have happened to the same group of individuals *identifying a true effect is impossible: requires that participants to simultaneously be exposed to something and not be exposed to something *we estimate the true effect by using control conditions
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How do scientists arrive at the conclusion that something causes something else to occur? *Hume’s “Rules” (1739-1740) (AKA Mill’s (1874) criteria) for identifying a causal relation: *Temporal precedence: Cause must precede the effect *Covariation: Cause must be related to the effect *Internal validity: No other explanations must exist for the effect Name those variables… *“Stage II breast cancer: Differences between four coping patterns in side effects during
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PSYCH 31 taught by Professor Dicorcia during the Spring '08 term at Tufts.

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PSY32 - Lecture 9 - Today Admin Exam 1 on Mon, Feb 25...

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