patho week 10.docx - Post a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections including their similarities and differences

patho week 10.docx - Post a description of the...

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Post a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an irritation of the urinary epithelium normally triggered by microscopic organism from gut flora. UTIs are some of the most common bacterial infections, affecting 150 million people each year worldwide (Flore-Mireles, Walker, Caparon & Hultgren, 2015). It is usually caused by a range of pathogens, but most common ones are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalisan and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (Flore-Mireles, et.al 2015). UTI can occur in any place in the urinary tract which includes the urethra, prostate, bladder, ureter and kidney (Huether & McCance, 2017) . Inflammation of the urinary epithelium results in UTI which is commonly due to bacterial flora from the gut (Huether & McCance, 2017) . UTI is divided into upper and lower UTI. The upper UTIs involve the kidneys and are known as pyelonephritis while lower involves the urethra (urethritis, bladder (cystitis), and the prostate in males (prostatis) (Huether & McCance, 2017) . Pathophysiology of Lower UTI The pathogenesis of a UTI emerges as a result of periureteral colonization of invading microbes (Lees, n.d). Sterile environment, the urinary tract is exposed to a nostalgic movement of gram- negatives bacilli into the urethra bladder (Huether & McCance, 2017) . The pathogens then penetrate the uroepithelium due to fimbria, producing biofilms (Lees, n.d). This ba cteria initiate an inflammatory response causing edema of the bladder wall which stimulates stretch receptors causing some of the symptoms of lower UTI or cystitis ( (Huether & McCance, 2017) . As the microorganisms proliferate and colonize, fimbria aids the bacteria to further ascend the ureters towards the kidneys. Symptoms includes flank or groin pain, chills, low-grade fever, hematuria
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