100%(5)5 out of 5 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 46 pages.
FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS The Moral Minimum: set of general standards that constitute the ethical minimum necessary for the functioning of civilization. 1.Honesty 2.Transparency 3.Keeping Commitments 4. DO NO HARMMoral Reasoning Process1.Identify the issues (narrowly) 2.Identify and apply rules/governing principles 3.Analyze 4.Weigh and prioritize (consider excusing conditions, conflict reduction, prioritizing degree and probability) 5. Conclude Sarbanes-Oxley Act: (wake of the Enron-era scandals) created new crimes and increased penalties for a host of old ones, but also madethe federal government's sentencing guidelines stiffer than ever beforeEthics: the study of morality by systematically exploring moral values, moral standards and obligations, moral reasoning, and moral judgements Legal standards: found in a constitution, statute, judicial decision, or administrative agency regulation and are defined and applied by governmental processes(concrete)Moral standards: do not have the backing of official government machinery but rather instinctive right or wrongUtilitarianism: general standard can serve as a guide for moral behaviorethical theory that is committed solely to the purpose of promoting "the greatest good for the greatest number"Moral relativism: the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstancesMoral pluralism: the idea that there can be conflicting moral views that are each worthy of respectEthical Heuristics SELF AWARENESS"Maybe you're the bad roommate" - Sarah Silverman FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERRORHuman tendency to underestimate how situational factors affects other's decisions and actions, and to OVERestimate how those same factors impact your decisions and actionsEx. drunk stumbling person at 9 p.m. on Friday night; jump to conclusions but when you get in that situation its different OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY We all have a strong desire to please authority figuresCONFORMITY BIASOr Theory of Social Proof Behave like everybody else Ex. Student section; sitting vs standingGROUPTHINK Concept that single persons thought dominates over entire group Ex. political party platform Usually when one authority figure dominatesFALSE CONSENSUS EFFECT The tendency to believe that other people think the same as we do Group = don’t automatically make assumptions about a whole group of people Individual = silent in response to question or conversation; creates false consensus that you agree even when its bad OVER-OPTIMISM - CONTEXTUAL We want to believe that the best will happen; even if its irrational "it will never happen to me"The better the situation gets, the more unrealistically optimist we get Over-optimism is more about how the world will revolve around you and the sun will always shine on you