Environmental Cues in Heroin Overdose.docx

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Running Head: ENVIRONMENTAL CUES IN HEROIN OVERDOSE 1 Environmental Cues in Heroin Overdose Experimental Cues in Heroin Overdose
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ENVIRONMENTAL CUES IN HEROIN OVERDOSE Heroin “Overdose” Death: Contribution of Drug-Associated Environmental Cues, a study conducted by Shepard Siegel, Riley E. Hinson, Marvin D. Krank, and Jane McCully explains that despite the tolerance that heroin addicts develop to the drug, many of them still die due to an overdose of the drug. Deaths like these are becoming more and more popular, despite the tolerance that these people build to the drug; About 1 percent of all U.S. heroin addicts die each year from an overdose of the drug. In many urban areas with high numbers of users, drug overdose is among one of the leading causes of death in people between the ages of 15 to 35 (Siegel et al., 1982). The over dosage of heroin, or any type of drug really, is a major public health concern but the deaths are still unclear due to fact that the doses should not have been considered fatal due to the tolerance they have built in fact, Siegel et al. (1982) stated that “some [users] die following a heroin dose that was well-tolerated the previous day”. The article is based on the study that was conducted on a group of rats to test out why there were deaths from overdose, even though they had built a tolerance to the drug, and how it relates to the environment where the drug is taken. After a couple of studies on the rats, the results suggested the following: Heroin-induced mortalities were much higher among the organisms that had been previously exposed to heroin multiple times in a different environment which they had not previously associated with the drug (a new environment) as opposed to organisms that administered the heroin in their usual environment. As you can see, these deaths (the rats and on humans) occurred even though the person had built a tolerance to the drug, meaning that the environment played a huge role in these situations. 2
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ENVIRONMENTAL CUES IN HEROIN OVERDOSE Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is probably one of the most basic forms of learning by association in psychology. Developed by Ivan Pavlov in 1927, classical conditioning involves the learning of a
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