BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR - BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR I STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Embryonic Development The CNS begins early in embryonic life as a hollow

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BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR I STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Embryonic Development  The CNS begins early in embryonic life as a hollow tube from ectodermic tissue, and it  maintains this shape even after it is fully developed. During development, parts of this tube  elongate, pockets and folds form, and the tissue around the tube thickens. The neural plate forms  a groove which closes, forming the neural tube which divides into the forebrain, midbrain, and  hindbrain.  Forebrain  – Lateral Ventricle – Telencephalon – Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia,  Limbic System   - Third Ventricle – Diencephalon – Thalamus,  Hypothalamus Midbrain   - Cerebral Aqueduct – Mesencephalon – Tectum, Tegmentum Hindbrain  – Fourth Ventricle  – Melencephalon – Cerebellum, Pons                   - Myelencephalon – Medulla Oblongata DORSAL/ SUPERIOR            ANTERIOR/ROSTRAL       CAUDAL/POSTERIOR  VENTRAL/ INTERIOR 7 Major Regions of the Central Nervous System 1. Cerebral Hemispheres- Telencephalon a. Cerebral Cortex i. Frontal, Occipital, Parietal, Temporal Lobes  ii. Involved in Perception, Sensation, Cognition, and Fine Motor Control iii. Frontal Lobe: Central sulcus, Parietal Lobe: Sylvian fissure,  Temporal: Parietal Occipital sulcus b. Basal Ganglia i. Control of Movement ii. Coarse Motor Control c. Limbic System i. Seed of emotion ii. Learning and Memory  2. Diencephalon a. Hypothalamus i. Regulates pituitary gland
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ii. Synthesizes Hormones b. Thalamus i. Movement, Sleep 3. Midbrain a. Tectum and Tegmentum i. Eye Movement, Sleep, Arousal, Movement 4. Hindbrain a. Cerebellum i. Coordinated Movements ii. Motor Control iii. Receives Visual, Auditory, and Somatosensory Information b. Pons i. Connect right and left cerebellum 5. Medulla a. Respiratory and Cardiovascular regulation  b. Motor/Sensory Information 6. Brain Stem a. Connects Brain with Spinal Cord  7. Spinal Cord a. Receives input (afferent information) via dorsal root and pass it to the brain b. Receives output (efferent information) via ventral root and passes it to the  rest of the body Fluid Systems The CNS surrounds an interconnected system of 4 cavities called ventricles 2 lateral ventricles IIIrd ventricle (connects to IV ventricle via sylvian fissure) IV ventricle (under cerebellum) CSF Fills subarachnoid space (between arachnoid and pia matter) Made from blood plasma Somatic Nervous System: Input   Sensory System (visual, tactile, auditory) Motivational System (control, initiation, and termination of behavior)
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Output Motor Systems (motor command) Via Cranial Nerves  Cranial Nerves  1. olfactory 2. optic 3. oculomotor  4. trochlear 5. abducens 6. trigeminal 7. facial 8. auditory
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PSYCH 103 taught by Professor Klausmiczek during the Spring '08 term at Tufts.

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BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR - BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR I STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Embryonic Development The CNS begins early in embryonic life as a hollow

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