HIST 158 Final Exam Study Guide.docx - Final Exam Study...

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Final Exam Study Guide HIST 158 December 9, 2017: 8AM Lecture Notes Part I Medieval Legacies After Rome: Fragmentation of Power (4th - 14th century) State: Centralized Roman empire → disintegrated in Middle ages → states re-emerge early modern Church: Powerful during Middle Ages, divided in early modern era (REFORMATION) Resembles what was Roman Empire during Middle Ages 476: Fall of Rome (W. Roman Empire → Rome, Eastern Roman Empire → Constantinople) After the fall of Rome, Europe entered a “Barbarian” era Roman Empire was in decline for 100 years and the fall wasn’t a sudden event Division between W. Roman Empire and E. Roman Empire E. Roman Empire didn’t fall until 1453 E. Roman Empire spoke Greek; W. Roman Empire spoke Latin E. Roman Empire was Orthodox Christians; W. Roman Empire was Catholics Biggest change: No more emperor in Rome Implications: Law became personal → “under which law do you live → MESS Power was personal (monarchy, territory, property of kin) Feudalism Land/protection in exchange of fidelity, military service, taxes, ransom Insures loyalty and governance Huge fragmentation of land and power Transition out of feudalism → HARD Crossroad of Culture Roman Catholic Church v. Eastern Orthodox Church Great Schism of 1054 Dispute over images used in worship Formal separation Christianity v. Islam Islam younger → 632 A.D. Muslim Conquests: 1st century, Spain - India Suddenly, one side of Med. Sea became Muslim and that scared people Arabs took parts of Eastern Roman Empire Result: Conflict (Crusades) Religion and Pop Culture Christianization of Europe: When Frankish King, Clovis, converted to Christianity in 498 → saved the Church in Europe (miracle the Church survived disintegration of the State) Forging an alliance with intellectual centers Church benefited b/c it could be protected by secular forces Introduced power to make/unmake kings Growing power of Church: Investiture, contest, crusades By 10th/11th century → most of Europe was converted 1
Pope reaching pinnacle of power of the papacy Declares only pope can appoint bishops Urban II launched 1st Crusade (1096) Church maintained centralized institution despite fall of Rome Most of power came from people’s fear of sin Crusades, pilgrimages, etc. → salvation Praise the church through art: Notre Dame Gregorian Chant Botticelli → Chart of Hell (1480-1490) 1st: People who didn’t have an opportunity to be Christian because Christianity was not created yet 2nd: Lustful 6th: Heretics 7th: Violence 8th: Corrupt politicians/priests, pimps, witches Society and Economy Tripartite division: nobles, clergy, peasant Economy: long decline → revival starting 11th century Appearance of cities: Burghers “Town air makes one free” (live in city for 1 yr, 1 day → free from serfdom) Black Death 1347 Killed

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