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Final Exam Study GuideHIST 158December 9, 2017: 8AMLecture NotesPart I●Medieval Legacies ○After Rome: Fragmentation of Power (4th - 14th century)■State: Centralized Roman empire → disintegrated in Middle ages → states re-emerge early modern■Church: Powerful during Middle Ages, divided in early modern era (REFORMATION) ●Resembles what was Roman Empire during Middle Ages○476: Fall of Rome (W. Roman Empire → Rome, Eastern Roman Empire → Constantinople) ■After the fall of Rome, Europe entered a “Barbarian” era■Roman Empire was in decline for 100 years and the fall wasn’t a sudden event●Division between W. Roman Empire and E. Roman Empire○E. Roman Empire didn’t fall until 1453○E. Roman Empire spoke Greek; W. Roman Empire spoke Latin○E. Roman Empire was Orthodox Christians; W. Roman Empire was Catholics■Biggest change: No more emperor in Rome●Implications:○Law became personal → “under which law do you live → MESS○Power was personal (monarchy, territory, property of kin)○Feudalism■Land/protection in exchange of fidelity, military service, taxes,ransom■Insures loyalty and governance■Huge fragmentation of land and power●Transition out of feudalism → HARD ●Crossroad of Culture○Roman Catholic Church v. Eastern Orthodox Church■Great Schism of 1054●Dispute over images used in worship●Formal separation○Christianity v. Islam■Islam younger → 632 A.D.■Muslim Conquests: 1st century, Spain - India■Suddenly, one side of Med. Sea became Muslim and that scared people■Arabs took parts of Eastern Roman Empire■Result: Conflict (Crusades)○Religion and Pop Culture■Christianization of Europe:When Frankish King, Clovis, converted to Christianity in 498 → saved the Church in Europe(miracle the Church survived disintegration of the State) ●Forging an alliance with intellectual centers●Church benefited b/c it could be protected by secular forces●Introduced power to make/unmake kings■Growing power of Church: Investiture, contest, crusades■By 10th/11th century → most of Europe was converted1
●Pope reaching pinnacle of power of the papacy○Declares only pope can appoint bishops■Urban II launched 1st Crusade (1096)■Church maintained centralized institution despite fall of Rome■Most of power came from people’s fear of sin●Crusades, pilgrimages, etc. → salvation ■Praise the church through art:●Notre Dame●Gregorian Chant●Botticelli → Chart of Hell (1480-1490)○1st: People who didn’t have an opportunity to be Christian because Christianity was not created yet○2nd: Lustful○6th: Heretics○7th: Violence○8th: Corrupt politicians/priests, pimps, witches○Society and Economy■Tripartite division: nobles, clergy, peasant■Economy: long decline → revival starting 11th century■Appearance of cities: Burghers■“Town air makes one free” (live in city for 1 yr, 1 day → free from serfdom)■Black Death 1347●Killed