APUSHperiod2.1.docx - AP U.S History Period 2(1607-1754 K.C 2.1 Name European Colonization o Once the New World is discovered the Big 4 four European

APUSHperiod2.1.docx - AP U.S History Period 2(1607-1754 K.C...

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AP U.S History: Period 2 (1607-1754) K.C. 2.1 Name_________________________________ European Colonization o Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world…. Spain- at Santa Fe England- at Jamestown France- at Quebec Portugal- in Africa o This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars. The Spanish o Spanish first to pursue in the Americas o Start in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531) o First permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by Spain o (Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM o Spanish practice of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply = FEUDALISM “granted” to deserving subjects of the King o Conquistador controlled Indian populations Required Indians to pay tribute from their lands Indians often rendered personal services as well. o In return the conquistador was obligated to protect his wards instruct them in the Christian faith defend their right to use the to live off the land o Encomienda system eventually decimated Indian population. The French o French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become Canada o Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North America o Develop a fur trade Explorers Sailing For France o - France - Reached St. Lawrence River - Claimed Eastern Canada for France – 1535 o - France - “Father of New France” - Established Quebec (the 1st permanent French colony in N. America) - Established settlements and explored Maine, Montreal & Nova Scotia - 1608 The Dutch o Like French, Dutch focus on fur trade & send only a few men to settlements o Found Albany (New York, 1614) on Hudson River o New Netherland (becomes New York) is an extension of the Dutch global trade system o Dutch & French form alliances with Native Americans—increase warfare & (Dutch ally) defeat Hurons(Algonquian) supported o - English sailing for the Dutch - Searching for Northwest Passage - Claimed Hudson River - Settlers established New Netherlands (New York) - 1609 Why England Late tho?? o First 1/2 of 1500s, England was Spain’s ally and had little interest in competing with Spain o In the 1530s, Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church, setting off decades-long religious conflict aka Protestant Reformation
English Piracy o o English pirates who plundered Spanish treasure ships and settlements (even though England and Spain were technically at peace) o Encouraged by ambitious Queen Elizabeth o Most famous was Sir .

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