AP U.S History: Period 2 (1607-1754) K.C. 2.1Name_________________________________European ColonizationoOnce the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four European countries begin competing for control of North America and the world….Spain- at Santa FeEngland- at JamestownFrance- at QuebecPortugal- in Africa oThis power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.The SpanishoSpanish first to pursue in the AmericasoStart in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas by Pizzaro (1531)oFirst permanent colonies in what will become United States are founded by Spaino(Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleetsENCOMIENDA SYSTEMoSpanish practice of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply = FEUDALISM“granted” to deserving subjects of the KingoConquistador controlled Indian populations Required Indians to pay tribute from their landsIndians often rendered personal services as well. oIn return the conquistador was obligated to protect his wardsinstruct them in the Christian faithdefend their right to use the to live off the land oEncomienda system eventually decimated Indian population. The FrenchoFrench settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) and what would become CanadaoControl St. Lawrence River & access to interior of North AmericaoDevelop a fur tradeExplorers Sailing For Franceo- France - Reached St. Lawrence River - Claimed Eastern Canada for France – 1535o- France - “Father of New France” - Established Quebec (the 1st permanent French colony in N. America) - Established settlements and explored Maine, Montreal & Nova Scotia - 1608The DutchoLike French, Dutch focus on fur trade & send only a few men to settlementsoFound Albany (New York, 1614) on Hudson RiveroNew Netherland (becomes New York) is an extension of the Dutch global trade systemoDutch & French form alliances with Native Americans—increase warfare & (Dutch ally) defeat Hurons(Algonquian) supportedo- English sailing for the Dutch - Searching for Northwest Passage - Claimed Hudson River - Settlers established New Netherlands (New York) - 1609Why England Late tho??oFirst 1/2 of 1500s, England was Spain’s ally and had little interest in competing with SpainoIn the 1530s, Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church, setting off decades-long religious conflict aka Protestant Reformation
English Piracyo“ ”oEnglish pirates who plundered Spanish treasure ships and settlements (even though England and Spain were technically at peace)oEncouraged by ambitious Queen ElizabethoMost famous was Sir .