Chapter 3 Notes - Chapter 3 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction...

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Chapter 3: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Attitudes : evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events; reflect how one feels about something Three closely related components: o Cognitive component : opinion or belief segment of an attitude o Affective component : emotional or feeling segment of an attitude o Behavioral component : intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something Attitudes are important because of their behavioral component o Significantly predict future behavior People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior o This can be done by: Altering attitudes Altering behaviors Developing a rationalization for the discrepancy Cognitive Dissonance : any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Theory of cognitive dissonance proposed by Leon Festinger in the late 1950s o Sought to explain a linkage between attitudes and behavior o Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable o Individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance (seek a stable state) The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by: o The importance of the elements creating the dissonance If elements = unimportant, pressure to correct imbalance = low o The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements o The rewards that may be involved in dissonance Just because individuals experience dissonance they will not necessarily move directly toward reducing it This theory can help to predict the propensity to engage in attitude and behavioral change Moderating Variables : powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship: Importance of the attitude o Important attitudes are ones that reflect: Fundamental values Self-interest Identification with individuals or groups that a person values Its specificity Its accessibility o You’re more likely to remember attitudes that are frequently expressed Whether social pressures exist o Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power
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Whether a person has direct experience with the attitude Self-perception Theory : looking at whether or not behavior influences attitudes
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