Chapter 4 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Personality and Values...

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Chapter 4: Personality and Values Personality : sum total ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others A dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s who psychological system Some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts Described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits A result of two factors: o Heredity : factors that were determined at conception, such as: Physical stature Facial attractiveness Gender Temperament Muscle composition and reflexes Energy level Biological rhythms Argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes Streams of research that lend the heredity-personality relationship credibility: Genetic underpinnings of human of human behavior and temperament among young children Study of twins who are separated at birth Consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations o Environment : factors that play a role in shaping our personalities, such as: Culture in which we are raised Norms among our family, friends, and social groups Other influences we experience Different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality Shouldn’t look at personality traits in isolation Our full potential will be determined by how well we adjust to the demands and requirements of the environment Both heredity and environment are important Personality Traits : enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior Employer’s have long believed that these traits could help in: o Employee selection o Matching people to jobs o Guiding career development decisions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into one of 16 character types Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world 100-question test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations
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Classified as: o Extraverted vs. Introverted : Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive Introverts are quiet and shy o
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