Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5: Perception and Individual...

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Chapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision Making Perception : a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Behavior is based on the perception of what reality is, not on reality itself o The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important Factors that operate to shape and sometimes distort perception: o Perceiver : interpretation is heavily influenced by the personal characteristics of the individual perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations o Object or target being perceived : not looked at in isolation Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Relationship of a target to its background influences perception Proximity Tendency to group close things together Similarity Tendency to group similar things together o Context of the situation in which the perception is made : Time Work setting School setting Person Perception : perceptions people form about each other; most relevant application of perception to OB. When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations of why they behave in certain ways Attribution Theory : proposed to develop explanations of the way in which we judge people differently. When we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was caused: o Internally : behaviors believed to be under the personal control of the individual o Externally : behaviors resulting from outside causes; the person is forced into the behavior by the situation Internal or External causation determination depends largely on:
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o Distinctiveness : whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations Is the behavior unusual? Yes, external attribution; No, internal attribution. o Consensus : everyone in the situation responds in the same way Consensus is high, external attribution; low, internal attribution o Consistency : the person responds the same way over time More consistent the behavior, internal attribution There are errors or biases that distort attributions o Fundamental attribution error : tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. o Self - serving Bias : tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors (skill, effort) and failure to external factors (bad luck, unproductive workers). o There are cultural differences affecting the universality of these errors or biases Selective Perception : selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
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Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5: Perception and Individual...

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