Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Perception and Individual...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision Making Perception : a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Behavior is based on the perception of what reality is, not on reality itself o The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important Factors that operate to shape and sometimes distort perception: o Perceiver : interpretation is heavily influenced by the personal characteristics of the individual perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations o Object or target being perceived : not looked at in isolation Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Relationship of a target to its background influences perception Proximity Tendency to group close things together Similarity Tendency to group similar things together o Context of the situation in which the perception is made : Time Work setting School setting Person Perception : perceptions people form about each other; most relevant application of perception to OB. When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations of why they behave in certain ways Attribution Theory : proposed to develop explanations of the way in which we judge people differently. When we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was caused: o Internally : behaviors believed to be under the personal control of the individual o Externally : behaviors resulting from outside causes; the person is forced into the behavior by the situation Internal or External causation determination depends largely on:
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

o Distinctiveness : whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations Is the behavior unusual? Yes, external attribution; No, internal attribution. o Consensus : everyone in the situation responds in the same way Consensus is high, external attribution; low, internal attribution o Consistency : the person responds the same way over time More consistent the behavior, internal attribution There are errors or biases that distort attributions o Fundamental attribution error : tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. o Self - serving Bias : tendency to attribute personal success to internal factors (skill, effort) and failure to external factors (bad luck, unproductive workers). o There are cultural differences affecting the universality of these errors or biases Selective Perception : selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern