Test 1 notes.docx - Microbiology Classes of Microorganisms Viruses Core made of DNA or RNA and surrounded by protein coat acellular co-opts cell

Test 1 notes.docx - Microbiology Classes of Microorganisms...

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Microbiology Classes of Microorganisms ° Viruses: Core made of DNA or RNA and surrounded by protein coat, acellular, co-opts cell machinery. Cannot replicate on their own. ° Bacteria (prokaryotes): very small, relatively simple, single celled, genetic material is not enclosed in nuclear membrane. Shapes: bacillus (rod), coccus (sphere), and spiral (corkscrew). ° Archaea: no peptidoglycan in cell wall, methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles. Live in extreme conditions, don’t cause disease. ° Fungi (Yeasts and Molds): Eukaryotes, distinct nucleus containing the cell’s DNA. Yeasts: Unicellular Molds: mycelia composed of long filaments (hyphae) Protozoa: eukaryotes, unicellular, classes based on mobility. Amoebae (pseudopods), Flagellates (Flagella), Ciliates (Cilia), Sporozoans (no motility) Helminths: multicellular animal parasites. Ex. Flatworms and roundworms. Microscopic algae: photosynthetic eukaryotes ° Pioneers of Microbiology ° Robert Hooke (1660): Proposed the Cell Theory. Observed cork with microscope and theorized that all living things are composed of cells. ° Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1676): Discovered microorganisms, “animalcules”. Wrote the first scientific papers ° Redi (1668): 1 st experiments to disprove the theory of Spontaneous Generation (Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter) ° Pasteur and Tyndall (1861): Finally disproved spontaneous generation. ° Lous Pasteur: Fermentation with anaerobic conditions (1857), Pasteurization by heating liquid enough to kill spoilage bacteria (1857), Vaccine development against anthrax and rabies (1857), Proposed the germ theory, Proposed aseptic techniques to prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms. ° Lister (1860s): used carbolic acid to disinfect, first aseptic techniques in surgery, father of antiseptic surgery. ° Robert Koch (1876-1884): postulates-germ theory, identified microbes that caused anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera, developed microbiological media, streak plates. Developed how to grow isolated cultures. ° Chemotherapy: The treatment of a disease by using chemical substances, synthetic drugs, antibiotics produced naturally. ° Paul Ehrlich (1908): used arsenic compounds (salvarsan) to fight disease
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° Alexander Fleming (1929): discovered Penicillium notatum mold killed bacteria-penicillin is discovered. Problems included toxicity of the drugs, selective toxicity (kill bacteria but don’t harm human), resistance of bacteria to chemotherapeutic agent. ° Branches of Microbiology ° Bacteriology: study of bacteria ° Mycology: study of fungi ° Virology: study of viruses ° Parasitology: study of protozoa and parasitic worms ° Immunology : study of immunity (Edward Jenner Vaccination 1796 on first human) ° Recombinant DNA Technology ° Genetic engineering, Microbial genetics, Molecular biology, Recombinant DNA ° Biotechnology : Gene therapy (inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective one in human cells), agriculture, human genetic disease.
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