Exam 2.docx - Exam 2 Bacterial Identification Methods Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Morphological Characteristics of Colony size color shape

Exam 2.docx - Exam 2 Bacterial Identification Methods...

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Exam 2 Bacterial Identification Methods Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Morphological Characteristics of Colony: size, color, shape of colony Differential Staining: gram or acid-fast stain Atmospheric Requirements: aeorobe, anaerobe etc. Biochemical Tests: enzymatic, rapid, selective or differential media Serology Methods: use of antibiotics to identify bacterium Phage Typing: which phages (bacterial viruses) a bacteria is susceptible to, food-associated infections, used clinically Genotypic Methods: o DNA analysis using genetic probes o Ribosomal RNA sequencing o Polymerase chain reaction o G + C Composition: overall % guanine and cytosine compared to A + T in DNA Classification of Bacteria by Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Spirochetes: treponema, borrelia, leptospira. Use axial filaments, motile and spiral Helical/Vibroid: Gram-negative bacteria o Campylobacter jejuni: gram-neg curved or spiral rod, foodborne intestinal disease o Helicobacter Pylori: gram-neg curved rod, causes gastric ulcers Gram-negative Aerobic Rods and Coccid: o Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: gram-neg rod, found in soil and environment, innate antibiotic resistance o Neisseria: gram-neg diplococcus, cause gonorrhea and meningitis Facultative Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods: o Enterobacteriaccae: enterics, intestinal tract of humans, ferment glucose and other carbs. Salmonella o Vibrio Cholerae: cholera o Haemophilus: must have blood in culture medium, require hemin Anaerobic Gram-Neg Rods: o Bacteroides Species: reside in oral cavity, genital tract and respiratory tract. Nonspore-forming, nonmotible and cause periodontitis. Rickettsia: obligate intracellular gram-neg coccobacillus, transmitted by arthropod vector (louse, tick, mosquito). Typhus, rocky mt. spotted fever. Chlamydia Trachomatis: obligate intracellular gram-neg coccobacillus, blindness, STD. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: primary atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia), no cell walls Gram-Positive Cocci:
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o Staphylococcus: part of normal flora, causes wound infections, toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning o Streptococcus: pneumonia and strep throat Endospore-Forming Gram-Pos Rods: o Aerobic: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) o Anaerobic: Clostridium botulinum, clostridium tetani (tetanus), Clostridium perfringens (food poisoning, gas gangrene) Nonspore-Forming Gram-Pos Rods: o Regular o Listeria monocytogenes: stillbirth in pregnant woman, food-borne, immunocompromised individuals o Irregular (Pleomorphic Morphology) o Corynebacterium diphtheriae: diphtheria Mycobacterium: acid fast, rod-shaped, mycolic acids in cell wall, causes tuberculosis and leprosy Fungal Identification Mycology: study of fungi Eukaryotes: have nucleus Chemoheterotrophs: organic compounds Sterols present in membrane No peptidoglycan in cell wall Saprophytes 100,000 species (100 are pathogenic) Molds Yeasts Physical Characteristics Filamentous: o Thallus (body) o Hyphae (filaments) Septate (septa or crosswalls)
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