Exam 1 explanations.docx - MICROBIOLOGY 200 EXAM 1 Old Exam Explainations Exam Feb 4 2008 1 Chemically Defined Media have the exact chemical formulas

Exam 1 explanations.docx - MICROBIOLOGY 200 EXAM 1 Old Exam...

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MICROBIOLOGY 200: EXAM 1 Old Exam Explainations Exam Feb. 4, 2008 1. Chemically Defined Media: have the exact chemical formulas given that are always precise and easy to replicate. Complex Media: only needs one ingredient that is not chemically defined. Ex. Extracts like beef extract. Therefore A is correct. 2. Conjugation: Genetic material, in form of plasmid, is transferred from one bacterium to another. Direct cell-to-cell contact. Conjugating cells must be opposite “mating type”. Donor cells carry plasmids. Recipient cells do not. Plasmid: F factor. Donor cell carrying plasmid: F + cell. Recipient with no plasmid: F - cell. Recipient cell becomes F + cell. If F factor integrates into the cell’s chromosome: Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell. 3. B: transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another as a plasmid 4. 1
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5. Naming: Genus, species 6. Autoclave: 121C for 15 minutes, 15lbs/sq.in. uses steam. For medical, metal, reusable tools and glass. 7. Incineration: For disposable materials, medical waste, burning, you can use for loops to streak plates in micro lab. 8. Baking: 2 hrs @ 160C. For glass, metal 9. Filtration: For liquids that may contain a heat sensitive ingredient that you don’t want to kill. Filters out endospores so its considered sterilization. 10. Ionizing Radiation: gamma rays, x-rays, high-energy electron beams. Ionization of water forms highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Pharmaceuticals, disposable dental and medical supplies like sytringes, gloves and sutures. 11. 2% Gluteraldhyde: 3 hrs. 12. Ethylene Oxide: 8 hrs, for plastic 13. Boiling: kills all vegetative cells, most viruses and fungi within 10 minutes, but not endospores. Only disinfects not sterilize. D: ethylene oxide for 16 hrs because it wont melt plastic and it is the appropriate time. 14. Prokaryotes: unique to bacteria, have conjugation pili. Have less organelles than eukaryotes. Very small, relatively simple, single-celled, genetic material is not enclosed in nuclear membrane shapes bacillus/rod, coccus/sphere, spiral/corkscrew 15. Eukaryotes: Ex. Fungi have distinct nuclei containing the cell’s DNA. Yeasts and unicellular, Molds. E: don’t have nuclei 16. Bacteriology : study of bacteria Mycology : study of fungi Virology : study of viruses Parasitology : study of protozoa and parasitic worms Immunology : study of immunity (Edward Jenner Vaccination 1796 on first human) C : the ability of the human body to fight off and recover from disease is immunology. 17. Plasma (Cytoplasmic) Membrane: has a phospholipid and protein, fluid mosaic model. It is selectively permeable, breaksdown nutrients and produces energy in the form of ATP B : the fluid mosaic model of a bilayer of phospholipids interspersed with proteins describes a prokaryotic/bacterial cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane 18. Hfr Cell : (High Frequency Recomination) plasmids become integrated into bacterial chromosome via F+ cells that have a chromosome to separate plasmid. Stems from bacterial conjugation. See question 2.
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