Exam 3 Study Guide.docx - Exam 3 Study Guide Innate Human Immunity Susceptibility vulnerability to microorganisms lack of resistance to disease

Exam 3 Study Guide.docx - Exam 3 Study Guide Innate Human...

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Exam 3 Study Guide Innate Human Immunity: 09/27/2013 Susceptibility: vulnerability to microorganisms, lack of resistance to disease Resistance: ability to ward off disease through our defenses Nonspecific Resistance: defenses that protect us from any pathogen. 1 st line of defense is the skin and mucous membrane, 2 nd line include phagocytes, inflammation, fever, and antimicrobial substances Specific Resistance: immunity Immunology: the study of a host’s specific defenses to a pathogen, the study of immunity Skin and Mucous Membrane Physical Factors (Mechanical Factors): epidermis, keratin, mucus on mucous membrane, saliva, lacrimal apparatus (tears), mucociliary escalator, urine flow and vaginal secretions. Chemical Factors: sebum, lysozyme, gastric juice (pH 1.2-3.0) and transferrins in blood Normal Microbiota Cytokines: protiens that are secreted by one cell type which act on another cell type. Communication between cells. Responses of cells to cytokines include proliferation, differentiation or both. o Autocrine: act on itself o Paracrine: act on another cell Nomenclature: Interleukin (IL), description of function ex. Interferon (IFN) Tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-a) Body Compartments that Participate in Immune Function Reticuloendothelial System (RES): support network of connective tissue fibers-passageway between and within tissues and organs. Mononuclear phagocyte system Bloodstream: o Leukocytes: WBC o Granulocytes: Neutrophils: polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, 60-70% leukocytes, highly phagocytic and active in initial stages of infection. Short lived 72 hours-8 days Basophils: release histamine Eosinophil: some phagocytosis, secrete toxic enzymes and important against helminthes and fungi o Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes and Dendritic Cells Monocytes: activated macrophages, highly phagocytic, migrating (wandering) macrophages, fixed macrophages in tissues like the liver, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and peritoneal cavity, predominate later in infection. Lymphatic System o Lymph o Primary Lymphoid Organs : bone barrow and thymus o Secondary Lymphoid Organs: spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils and gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT) Phagocytosis: Ingestion of a microorganism or any particulate matter by a cell. Phagocytes are a human cell that performs this function, WBC’s o Chemotaxis: chemical attraction of phagocytes to microorganisms o Adherence: attachment of phagocyte to surface of microorganism Opsonizaiton: coated with proteins o Ingestion: microorganism in phagosome o Digestion: phagolysosome, produces enzymes and toxic products to kill o Exceptions: 1
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Exam 3 Study Guide Coxiella burnetii: not killed by enzymes, grow inside macrophages Ex: Chlamydia, Shigella, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Leishmania Inflammation: Calor (heat), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and loss of function.
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