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Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Motivation Concepts Motivation...

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Chapter 6: Motivation Concepts Motivation : the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. A majority of U.S. employees (55%) have no enthusiasm for their work Motivation is not a personal trait Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation o Change in motivation is driven by the situation Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive o Level of motivation varies both between individuals and with individuals at different times Three key elements: o Intensity : how hard a person tries High intensity is unlikely to lead to favorable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. o Direction : effort that is directed toward, and consistent with, the organization’s goals o Persistence : how long a person can maintain effort Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal Hierarchy of Needs : a hierarchy of needs exists such that as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Created by Abraham Maslow Five needs: o Physiological : bodily needs such as hunger, thirst, and shelter o Safety : security and protection from physical and emotional harm o Social : includes affection, belongingness, acceptance , and friendship o Esteem : esteem factors such as: Internal esteem such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement External esteem such as status, recognition, and attention o Self-actualization : the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential , and self-fulfillment As needs become substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant o Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates o To motivate, understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on Five needs are separated into: o Lower-order needs : physiological and safety needs; satisfied externally o Higher-order needs : social, esteem, and self-actualization needs; satisfied internally Research doesn’t validate this theory ERG Theory : revised needs hierarchy Created by Clayton Alderfer 3 groups of core needs:
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o Existence o Relatedness o Growth Does not assume that there exists a rigid hierarchy Research hasn’t been any more supportive of this theory Theory X and Theory Y : Created by Douglas McGregor Theory X : the assumption that employees: Dislike work Are lazy Dislike responsibility Must be coerced to perform o Basically negative o Assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals Theory Y : the assumption that employees: Like work Are creative Seek responsibility Can exercise self-direction o Basically positive o Assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals Managers’ views of the nature of human beings are based on certain groupings of assumptions
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