Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter 7 Motivation From Concepts to...

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Chapter 7: Motivation – From Concepts to Applications Job Design : the way the elements in a job are organized Job Characteristics Model : proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: o Skill variety : degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities o Task identity : degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work o Task significance : degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people o Autonomy : degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Personal responsibility for the results o Feedback : degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance Developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham Meaningful work : combination of skill variety, task identity, and task significance Internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn (knowledge of results) that they personally (experienced responsibility) have performed well on a task that they care about (experienced meaningfulness) Motivating potential score (MPS): predictive index suggesting the motivating potential in a job o MPS = Skill variety + Task Identity + Task significance x Autonomy x Feedback 3 o MPS model doesn’t work; one can better derive motivating potential by adding the characteristics rather than using the complex MPS formula JCM has been well researched Jobs that have the intrinsic elements of variety, identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback are more satisfying Job Re-design : Job rotation (cross-training): periodic shift of an employee form one task to another o Reduces boredom o Increases motivation o Helps employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization o Employees with a wider range of skills give management more flexibility o Not without drawbacks Training costs are increased Productivity is reduced Creates disruptions Job enlargement : increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs
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