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Unformatted text preview: TEST BANK > CONTROL PANEL > POOL MANAGER > POOL CANVAS Pool Canvas Add, modify, and remove questions. Select a question type from the Add Question drop-down list and click Go to add questions. Use Creation Settings to establish which default options, such as feedback and images, are available for question creation. Add Calculated Formula Creation Settings Name Chapter 6: Vision Description Instructions Modify Add Question Here Question 1 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Johannes Müller held that whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 2 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question The coding of visual information in your brain results in an exact duplicate of the object's shape on the surface of the cortex. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 3 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question René Descartes believed that the brain’s representation of a stimulus resembled the stimulus. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 4 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question The cornea is an adjustable structure in the eye that focuses light. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 5 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Light from the right side of the world strikes the left side of the retina. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 6 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Bipolar cells are the light sensitive cells in the retina. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 7 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features Answer True False Add Question Here Question 8 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question In the fovea, each receptor ends up has its own unique connection to the brain. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 9 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Shapes are more easily identified with peripheral vision than foveal vision. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 10 True/False 0 points Question Cones are essential for color vision. Answer True False Modify Remove Add Question Here Question 11 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question There are many more rods than cones in the human retina. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 12 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question A species that has a high rod to cone ratio is most likely to be active during the day. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 13 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Photopigments are stable in the dark. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 14 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Rods are abundant in the periphery of the human retina. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 15 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive only three colors. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 16 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question The retinex theory accounts for the principle of color constancy. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 17 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Men are more likely to experience color vision deficiency than women. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 18 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question An object's location, color, and movement are all processed in the same part of the visual cortex. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 19 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question The optic nerve is composed of axons from ganglion cells. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 20 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Lateral inhibition is the reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 21 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Magnocellular ganglion cells transmit information about an object's color. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 22 True/False 0 points Question Parvocellular cells respond strongly to moving stimuli and large overall patterns. Answer True False Modify Remove Add Question Here Question 23 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question V1 appears to be essential for visual consciousness. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 24 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Some people with damage to area V1 show a surprising phenomenon called blindsight. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 25 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question The ventral stream of visual processing is important for identifying movement. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 26 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary visual cortex. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 27 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question A complex cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 28 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question All neurons within a particular column of the visual cortex will likely respond to the same orientation of a stimulus. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 29 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question A person with prosopagnosia can not recognize voices. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 30 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Faces excite the fusiform gyrus more than any other visual stimulus. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 31 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Damage to area V4 would likely cause problems with color constancy. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 32 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Two areas that are especially activated by motion are area MST and area V4. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 33 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question Movement of the eyes suppresses activity in the visual cortex for a brief moment. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 34 True/False 0 points Question Infants are born with the ability to control their visual attention. Answer True False Modify Remove Add Question Here Question 35 True/False 0 points Modify Remove Question In humans as in other species, the visual cortex is more plastic early in life. Answer True False Add Question Here Question 36 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The law of specific nerve energies states that: Answer perception of a repeated stimulus fades. every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light. the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus. any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential. Add Question Here Question 37 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is TRUE according to the law of specific nerve energies? Answer Any stimulation of the auditory nerve is perceived as sound. A single nerve can convey either auditory or visual information. Each sensory system has a unique electrical charge. If one sensory system becomes inactive, others will compensate. Add Question Here Question 38 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by: Answer which neurotransmitter is released. which neurons are active. the velocity of the action potentials. the amplitude of the action potentials. Add Question Here Question 39 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____. Answer retina cells bipolar cells ganglion cells spiny cells Add Question Here Question 40 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the: Answer retina. cornea. pupil. macula. Add Question Here Question 41 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The bipolar cells send their messages to ____, located closer to the center of the eye. Answer spiny cells cornea cells bipolar cells ganglion cells Add Question Here Question 42 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Light is focused as it enters through which of the following structures? Answer lens only cornea only lens and cornea pupil Add Question Here Question 43 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Light from the right half of the world strikes what part of the retina? Answer the left half the right half the whole retina equally It depends of the wavelength. Add Question Here Question 44 Multiple Choice 0 points Question Light from the left half of the world strikes what part of the retina? Modify Remove Answer the left half the right half the whole retina equally It depends of the wavelength. Add Question Here Question 45 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Light from above our head strikes the: Answer left side of the retina. right side of the retina. top half of the retina. bottom half of the retina. Add Question Here Question 46 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Why does the periphery of the retina detect faint lights better than the fovea does? Answer Receptors are packed more tightly in the periphery than in the fovea. The lens focuses light more accurately in the periphery than in the fovea. The periphery has a higher ratio of cones to rods. More receptors converge their input onto each bipolar cell. Add Question Here Question 47 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In what order does visual information pass through the retina? Answer receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells Add Question Here Question 48 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features. Answer receptors. geniculate cells. amacrine cells. optic nerves. Add Question Here Question 49 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Cells in the retina that provide connections among themselves, as well as with bipolar and ganglion cells are known as: Answer receptors. geniculate cells. amacrine cells. optic nerves. Add Question Here Question 50 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell? Answer rods and cones bipolar cells horizontal cells ganglion cells Add Question Here Question 51 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the: Answer blind spot. fovea. optic chiasm. ganglion. Add Question Here Question 52 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The blind spot in each eye is blind because: Answer everyone has nerve damage. the fluid in the eye becomes crystallized there. amacrine cells are tangled there. there are no receptors there. Add Question Here Question 53 Multiple Choice 0 points Question Which of the following characterizes the blind spot? Answer It has the greatest perception of detail. Modify Remove There are no receptors there.. It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil. It has more rods than cones. Add Question Here Question 54 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following characterizes the fovea? Answer It has the greatest perception of detail. It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve. It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil. It has more rods than cones. Add Question Here Question 55 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina? Answer the optic nerve the fovea an area containing mostly rods the cornea Add Question Here Question 56 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks: Answer have no discernible fovea. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina. are virtually indistinguishable from the retinas of humans. Add Question Here Question 57 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Because blood vessels and ganglion cell axons are almost absent near the ____, it has nearly unimpeded vision. Answer optic nerve fovea area containing mostly rods cornea Add Question Here Question 58 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Foveal vision has: Answer better sensitivity to dim light. better acuity. less ability for detailed vision. no ability for visual perception. Add Question Here Question 59 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Ganglion cells near the fovea in humans and other primates are called ____ ganglion cells. Answer midget giant reticulated cone-shaped Add Question Here Question 60 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages: Answer straight to the brain. immediately to ganglion cells within the retina. to bipolar cells within the retina. to the periphery of the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last. Add Question Here Question 61 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information? Answer It is closest to the pupil. It surrounds the optic nerve. Receptors are tightly packed there. There are many blood vessels for supplying energy. Add Question Here Question 62 Multiple Choice 0 points Question All of the following are reasons why the fovea is well-suited for highly detailed vision EXCEPT: Answer there are few blood vessels there. there are few ganglion cells there. the receptors are tightly-packed there. Modify Remove the optic nerve connects there. Add Question Here Question 63 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question How do the retinas of predatory birds, such as hawks, differ from the retinas of prey species, such as rats? Answer Hawks have one fovea; rats have two. Hawks have greater density of receptors on the top half of their retinas than do rats. Hawks do not have bipolar cells in the retina; rats have an abundance of bipolar cells in the retina. Hawks have mostly rods, whereas rats have mostly cones. Add Question Here Question 64 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which of the following is TRUE related to peripheral vision? Answer It is very sensitive to detail. It is easier to recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by other objects. It is not very sensitive to light. It is most sensitive to color. Add Question Here Question 65 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question What are the two kinds of receptors in the retina? Answer bipolar and ganglion cells ganglion and rods rods and cones amacrine and horizontal Add Question Here Question 66 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In comparison to the rods, cones are more: Answer common toward the periphery of the retina. sensitive to detail. sensitive to dim light. common in rodents and other nocturnal animals. Add Question Here Question 67 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question ____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light. Answer phototransmitters photosins photopigments photoions Add Question Here Question 68 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to: Answer opsins. unstable proteins. all-trans-retinal. sodium. Add Question Here Question 69 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called: Answer photo-optics. photopigments. opsins. kestrels. Add Question Here Question 70 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question In comparison to cones, rods: Answer are more common toward the center of the retina. are more sensitive to detail. are more sensitive to dim light. reach their peak firing levels slowly. Add Question Here Question 71 Multiple Choice 0 points Question Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____. Answer the periphery; the fovea red; blue vertebrates; invertebrates reading text; reading road signs Modify Remove Add Question Here Question 72 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Most retinal cones are concentrated in the: Answer periphery. fovea. right half of each retina. top part of each retina. Add Question Here Question 73 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question ____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different wavelengths of light. Answer retinol; photopigments opsins; retinol photopigments; opsins opsins; photopigments Add Question Here Question 74 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Peripheral vision mainly depends upon: Answer the fovea. cones. rods. just a few receptors. Add Question Here Question 75 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Night-active species are more likely than day-active species to have: Answer better peripheral vision. larger blind spots. a greater rod to cone ratio. a greater cone to rod ratio. Add Question Here Question 76 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question How does light excite a rod or cone? Answer It heats up the fluid in the receptor. It converts 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal. It converts leu-enkephalin into met-enkephalin. It ionizes neutral sodium into a positively charged ion. Add Question Here Question 77 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Why do humans perceive faint light better in the periphery of the eye? Answer Receptors in the periphery are closer to the pupil. The fovea is closer to the retina's blind spot than peripheral receptors are. More receptors in the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell. Ganglion cells in the periphery transmit their information to a larger brain area. Add Question Here Question 78 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question If you wanted to see a faint star at night, you should: Answer stare straight at it. look slightly to one side. look at a mirror's reflection of it. wait until daytime. Add Question Here Question 79 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color? Answer cones rods both rods and cones horizontal and amacrine cells Add Question Here Question 80 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question More than a century ago, researchers had evidence that the human retina contained three kinds of color-sensitive receptors. What was the basis of their evidence? Answer observations of negative after-images studies of how people adapt to various degrees of light or darkness chemical measurements on the receptors themselves experiments on mixing colors of light together Add Question Here Question 81 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Initially, researchers determined how many types of receptors we have for determining color: Answer through psychophysical observations. through the use of biochemical methods. through genetic markers. by developing a trichromatic spectrometer. Add Question Here Question 82 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to the trichromatic theory of color vision: Answer there are only three rods and three cones in each eye. there are only three colors of light in the world. rods are important for perception of light colors. our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones. Add Question Here Question 83 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the basis for color vision? Answer a different receptor for each color three kinds of cones a single receptor that produces different responses for each color the combined influences of rods and cones Add Question Here Question 84 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Which theory emphasizes the idea that color vision depends on the relative responses of three kinds of cones? Answer Young-Helmholtz theory op...
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